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      Efficacy of Recombinant Human Endostatin plus Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Osteosarcoma and Its Influence on Serum VEGF and MMP-9 Levels

      Journal of Oncology

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          To investigate the efficacy of recombinant human endostatin (rh-Endo) plus neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for osteosarcoma (OSA) and its influence on serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9).


          The case data of 141 OSA patients presented to the North District, Xiangyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Hubei University of Arts and Sciences from January 2018 to June 2019, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients receiving NACT (methotrexate + ifosfamide + adriamycin) were assigned into the control group (CNG; n = 65), while those treated with rh-Endo plus NACT were included in the combination group (CMG; n = 76). The following aspects were compared: clinical efficacy, serum tumor markers, serum VEGF and MMP-9 contents, inflammatory factors, incidence of adverse reactions, limb function scores at 6 months of follow-up, and prognostic quality of life (QOL).


          A statistically higher overall response rate (ORR) was determined in CMG versus CNG (84.2% vs. 64.6%, P < 0.05). The pretreatment serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, serum amyloid A (SAA), VEGF, MMP-9, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α, and interleukin (IL)-10 levels differed insignificantly between the two cohorts ( P > 0.05); while except IL-10 that showed increased expression in both cohorts and was comparatively higher in CMG, the other 8 parameters reduced in both cohorts after 2 weeks of drug withdrawal, and the reduction of each parameter was more significant in CMG ( P < 0.05). The total adverse reaction rate was 30.2% in CMG, which was higher than that of 36.9% in CNG, albeit without a statistical difference ( P > 0.05). An evidently higher 2-year survival rate was determined in CMG ( P < 0.05).


          rh-Endo plus NACT is more effective than NACT alone in the treatment of osteosarcoma, which can validly restore the balance of vascular endothelial cells, reduce inflammation, and is worth promoting in clinic.

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          Most cited references37

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          New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1).

          Assessment of the change in tumour burden is an important feature of the clinical evaluation of cancer therapeutics: both tumour shrinkage (objective response) and disease progression are useful endpoints in clinical trials. Since RECIST was published in 2000, many investigators, cooperative groups, industry and government authorities have adopted these criteria in the assessment of treatment outcomes. However, a number of questions and issues have arisen which have led to the development of a revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). Evidence for changes, summarised in separate papers in this special issue, has come from assessment of a large data warehouse (>6500 patients), simulation studies and literature reviews. HIGHLIGHTS OF REVISED RECIST 1.1: Major changes include: Number of lesions to be assessed: based on evidence from numerous trial databases merged into a data warehouse for analysis purposes, the number of lesions required to assess tumour burden for response determination has been reduced from a maximum of 10 to a maximum of five total (and from five to two per organ, maximum). Assessment of pathological lymph nodes is now incorporated: nodes with a short axis of 15 mm are considered measurable and assessable as target lesions. The short axis measurement should be included in the sum of lesions in calculation of tumour response. Nodes that shrink to <10mm short axis are considered normal. Confirmation of response is required for trials with response primary endpoint but is no longer required in randomised studies since the control arm serves as appropriate means of interpretation of data. Disease progression is clarified in several aspects: in addition to the previous definition of progression in target disease of 20% increase in sum, a 5mm absolute increase is now required as well to guard against over calling PD when the total sum is very small. Furthermore, there is guidance offered on what constitutes 'unequivocal progression' of non-measurable/non-target disease, a source of confusion in the original RECIST guideline. Finally, a section on detection of new lesions, including the interpretation of FDG-PET scan assessment is included. Imaging guidance: the revised RECIST includes a new imaging appendix with updated recommendations on the optimal anatomical assessment of lesions. A key question considered by the RECIST Working Group in developing RECIST 1.1 was whether it was appropriate to move from anatomic unidimensional assessment of tumour burden to either volumetric anatomical assessment or to functional assessment with PET or MRI. It was concluded that, at present, there is not sufficient standardisation or evidence to abandon anatomical assessment of tumour burden. The only exception to this is in the use of FDG-PET imaging as an adjunct to determination of progression. As is detailed in the final paper in this special issue, the use of these promising newer approaches requires appropriate clinical validation studies.
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            VEGF as a Key Mediator of Angiogenesis in Cancer

            Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a homodimeric glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 45 kDa. It is the key mediator of angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), and binds two VEGF receptors (VEGF receptor-1 and VEGF receptor-2), which are expressed on vascular endothelial cells. In healthy humans, VEGF promotes angiogenesis in embryonic development and is important in wound healing in adults. VEGF is the key mediator of angiogenesis in cancer, in which it is up-regulated by oncogene expression, a variety of growth factors and also hypoxia. Angiogenesis is essential for cancer development and growth: before a tumor can grow beyond 1–2 mm, it requires blood vessels for nutrients and oxygen. The production of VEGF and other growth factors by the tumor results in the ‘angiogenic switch’, where new vasculature is formed in and around the tumor, allowing it to grow exponentially. Tumor vasculature formed under the influence of VEGF is structurally and functionally abnormal. Blood vessels are irregularly shaped, tortuous, have dead ends and are not organized into venules, arterioles and capillaries. They are also leaky and hemorrhagic, which leads to high interstitial pressure. These characteristics mean that tumor blood flow is suboptimal, resulting in hypoxia and further VEGF production. This central role of VEGF in the production of tumor vasculature makes it a rational target for anticancer therapy.
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              Osteosarcoma: Current Treatment and a Collaborative Pathway to Success.

              Osteosarcoma is the bone tumor that most commonly affects children, adolescents, and young adults. Before 1970, treatment primarily included surgical resection. However, the introduction of chemotherapy led to a dramatic improvement in prognosis for patients with localized osteosarcoma; long-term survival rates of less than 20% improved to 65% to 70% after the advent of multiagent chemotherapy regimens. Controversy concerning the ideal combination of chemotherapy agents ensued throughout the last quarter of the 20th century because of conflicting and often nonrandomized data. However, large cooperative group studies and international collaboration have demonstrated that the most effective regimens include the combination of high-dose methotrexate, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MAP). The introduction of biologic agents such as muramyl tripeptide and the use of additional cytotoxic chemotherapy such as ifosfamide have not definitively improved the survival of patients with osteosarcoma. Collaborative efforts to increase understanding of the biology of osteosarcoma and the use of preclinical models to test novel agents will be critical to identify the path toward improving outcomes for patients. Once promising agents are identified, an international infrastructure exists for clinical trials. Herein, biologic, preclinical, and clinical trial efforts will be described along with future international collaborative strategies to improve outcomes for patients who develop this challenging tumor.

                Author and article information

                J Oncol
                J Oncol
                Journal of Oncology
                25 February 2023
                : 2023
                : 8161683
                Department of Orthopaedics, North District, Xiangyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Hubei University of Arts and Sciences, Xiangyang 441002, Hubei, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Jinghua Pan

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Wei Sui and Guanghui Lin.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 11 July 2022
                : 14 August 2022
                : 17 August 2022
                Research Article

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                Oncology & Radiotherapy


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