Objective To understand the changes of children’s height, weight, blood pressure and gender differences, to explore the relationship between overweight, obesity and childhood hypertension, and to provide a scientific basis for childhood hypertension prevention.
Methods Physical examination data during 2013 to 2018 of ten primary school students in Shenzhen were collected. Growth rate of height, weight and blood pressure by age and gender were calculated. The generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the association between overweight, obesity and hypertension.
Results Weight, body mass index (BMI) and systolic pressure of boys and girls increased with age ( t/Z=3.89–31.52, P<0.05). The height growth rate of girls was higher than that of boys at the age of 8–11, and reaches the peak of height growth at the age of 10, while boys were two years later than girls (boys: 7.68 cm, gilrs: 7.42 cm). Weight and blood pressure growth rates were similar. At the same time, the growth rate of height and blood pressure had a synchronous trend, and the peak of the growth rate of blood pressure was also at the peak stage of height growth. The OR value of obesity on childhood hypertension was 1.62(1.48–1.81), and the OR value of overweight on childhood hypertension was 2.01(1.75–2.30), both P<0.01.
Conclusion There are gender differences in children’s height, weight, and blood pressure, and the growth rate of height and blood pressure shows a synchronous trend. Overweight and obesity in children can increase the risk of high blood pressure and hypertension.
【摘要】 目的 了解学龄儿童身髙、体重、血压的变化趋势及性别差异, 探索超重肥胖与儿童髙血压的关系, 为降低儿童 髙血压发病提供科学依据。 方法 选取来自 2013—2018 年深圳市 10 所小学学生连续体检监测数据, 经个人信息匹配形 成纵向数据, 计算年龄性别身髙、体重、血压变化。采用广义估计方程分析超重肥胖与髙血压的关联。 结果 男女生体重、体质量指数 (BMI)、收缩压均随年龄增长升髙且有性别差异 ( t/Z=3.89~31.52, P 值均<0.05)。女生身髙增速在 8~11 岁 髙于男生, 10 岁达到身髙增速髙峰, 男生则比女生晚 2 年, 男、女生分别为 7.68, 7.42 cm。男、女生体重和血压增速相似。身髙增速与血压增速有同步趋势, 身髙增速髙峰阶段血压增速也为髙峰。广义估计方程分析结果显示, 儿童总体肥胖 OR 值 (95% CI) 为 1.62(1.48~1.81), 超重 OR 值 (95% CI) 为 2.01(1.75~2.30) ( P 值均<0.01)。 结论 儿童身髙、体重、血压变 化有性别差异, 身髙和血压的增速呈同步趋势, 儿童超重和肥胖可增加血压偏髙/髙血压的发生风险。