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      The Acute Relationships Between Affect, Physical Feeling States, and Physical Activity in Daily Life: A Review of Current Evidence

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          Abstract

          Until recently, most studies investigating the acute relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity were conducted in controlled laboratory settings, whose results might not translate well to everyday life. This review was among the first attempts to synthesize current evidence on the acute (e.g., within a few hours) relationships between affective and physical feeling states and physical activity from studies conducted in free-living, naturalistic settings in non-clinical populations. A systematic literature search yielded 14 eligible studies for review. Six studies tested the relationship between affective states and subsequent physical activity; findings from these studies suggest that positive affective states were positively associated with physical activity over the next few hours while negative affective states had no significant association. Twelve studies tested affective states after physical activity and yielded consistent evidence for physical activity predicting higher positive affect over the next few hours. Further, there was some evidence that physical activity was followed by a higher level of energetic feelings in the next few hours. The evidence for physical activity reducing negative affect in the next few hours was inconsistent and inconclusive. Future research in this area should consider recruiting more representative study participants, utilizing higher methodological standards for assessment (i.e., electronic devices combined with accelerometry), reporting patterns of missing data, and investigating pertinent moderators and mediators (e.g., social and physical context, intensity, psychological variables). Knowledge gained from this topic could offer valuable insights for promoting daily physical activity adoption and maintenance in non-clinical populations.

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          Most cited references26

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          Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion.

          R Lazarus (1991)
          The 2 main tasks of this article are 1st, to examine what a theory of emotion must do and basic issues that it must address. These include definitional issues, whether or not physiological activity should be a defining attribute, categorical versus dimensional strategies, the reconciliation of biological universals with sociocultural sources of variability, and a classification of the emotions. The 2nd main task is to apply an analysis of appraisal patterns and the core relational themes that they produce to a number of commonly identified emotions. Anger, anxiety, sadness, and pride (to include 1 positive emotion) are used as illustrations. The purpose is to show the capability of a cognitive-motivational-relational theory to explain and predict the emotions. The role of coping in emotion is also discussed, and the article ends with a response to criticisms of a phenomenological, folk-theory outlook.
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            Ecological momentary assessment.

            Assessment in clinical psychology typically relies on global retrospective self-reports collected at research or clinic visits, which are limited by recall bias and are not well suited to address how behavior changes over time and across contexts. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves repeated sampling of subjects' current behaviors and experiences in real time, in subjects' natural environments. EMA aims to minimize recall bias, maximize ecological validity, and allow study of microprocesses that influence behavior in real-world contexts. EMA studies assess particular events in subjects' lives or assess subjects at periodic intervals, often by random time sampling, using technologies ranging from written diaries and telephones to electronic diaries and physiological sensors. We discuss the rationale for EMA, EMA designs, methodological and practical issues, and comparisons of EMA and recall data. EMA holds unique promise to advance the science and practice of clinical psychology by shedding light on the dynamics of behavior in real-world settings.
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              The descriptive epidemiology of sitting. A 20-country comparison using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

              Recent epidemiologic evidence points to the health risks of prolonged sitting, that are independent of physical activity, but few papers have reported the descriptive epidemiology of sitting in population studies with adults. This paper reports the prevalence of "high sitting time" and its correlates in an international study in 20 countries. Representative population samples from 20 countries were collected 2002-2004, and a question was asked on usual weekday hours spent sitting. This question was part of the International Prevalence Study, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The sitting measure has acceptable reliability and validity. Daily sitting time was compared among countries, and by age group, gender, educational attainment, and physical activity. Data were available for 49,493 adults aged 18-65 years from 20 countries. The median reported sitting time was 300 minutes/day, with an interquartile range of 180-480 minutes. Countries reporting the lowest amount of sitting included Portugal, Brazil, and Colombia (medians ≤180 min/day), whereas adults in Taiwan, Norway, Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia, and Japan reported the highest sitting times (medians ≥360 min/day). In adjusted analyses, adults aged 40-65 years were significantly less likely to be in the highest quintile for sitting than adults aged 18-39 years (AOR=0.796), and those with postschool education had higher sitting times compared with those with high school or less education (OR=1.349). Physical activity showed an inverse relationship, with those reporting low activity on the IPAQ three times more likely to be in the highest-sitting quintile compared to those reporting high physical activity. Median sitting time varied widely across countries. Assessing sitting time is an important new area for preventive medicine, in addition to assessing physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Population surveys that monitor lifestyle behaviors should add measures of sitting time to physical activity surveillance. Moreover, the use of objective measures to capture the spectrum of sedentary (sitting) and physical activity behaviors is encouraged, particularly in low- and middle-income countries commencing new surveillance activities. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                23 December 2015
                2015
                : 6
                : 1975
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Behavioral Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston, TX, USA
                [2] 2ChildObesity180, Tufts University Boston, MA, USA
                [3] 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Darko Jekauc, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany

                Reviewed by: Wolfgang Michael Schlicht, University of Stuttgart, Germany; Martina K. Kanning, University of Stuttgart, Germany; Andreas Richard Schwerdtfeger, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Austria

                *Correspondence: Yue Liao, yueliao@ 123456mdanderson.org

                This article was submitted to Movement Science and Sport Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01975
                4688389
                26779049
                899f8323-5023-4cf4-a8ef-2e4d778bd867
                Copyright © 2015 Liao, Shonkoff and Dunton.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 25 September 2015
                : 09 December 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 37, Pages: 7, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: American Cancer Society 10.13039/100000048
                Award ID: 118283-MRSGT-10-012-01-CPPB
                Funded by: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 10.13039/100000050
                Award ID: 1R01HL119255, 1R21HL108018
                Categories
                Psychology
                Mini Review

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                exercise,mood,accelerometry,experience sampling,ecological momentary assessment,free-living

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