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      The Psychology of Addictive Smartphone Behavior in Young Adults: Problematic Use, Social Anxiety, and Depressive Stress

      Frontiers in Psychiatry

      Frontiers Media S.A.

      smartphone, behavior, anxiety, depression, stress

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          This review enhances the existing literature on relationships between problematic smartphone use (PSU), psychopathology, addictive personality, and online social engagement as regards young adults, giving attention to predictive determinants of addictive behavior in smartphone usage. My article cumulates previous research findings on the psychology of addictive smartphone behavior in terms of problematic use, social anxiety, and depressive stress by focusing on the relationship among mobile social media usage, smartphone addiction risk, mental health issues, and individual well-being. The inspected collected findings prove that depression and social anxiety constitute risk determinants for greater PSU and that particular categories of smartphone applications are positively related to well-being. State anxiety and motivations represent significant predictors of PSU. High PSU affects participation in social engagement. As limitations in the current review, my results point towards relevant avenues of research on social consequences of teenagers’ smartphone problematic use. Future directions should clarify whether compulsive smartphone use adversely affects both mental and physical health in the long run.

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          Most cited references 65

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          Problematic smartphone use: A conceptual overview and systematic review of relations with anxiety and depression psychopathology.

          Research literature on problematic smartphone use, or smartphone addiction, has proliferated. However, relationships with existing categories of psychopathology are not well defined. We discuss the concept of problematic smartphone use, including possible causal pathways to such use.
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            The relationship between anxiety symptom severity and problematic smartphone use: A review of the literature and conceptual frameworks

            In the present paper, we examine the literature studying relations between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and anxiety symptom severity. We first present background on the health advantages and disadvantages of using a smartphone. Next, we provide caveats in distinguishing healthy smartphone use from unhealthy PSU, and we discuss how PSU is measured. Additionally, we discuss theoretical frameworks explaining how some people develop PSU, including Uses and Gratifications Theory, and Compensatory Internet Use Theory. We present our own theoretical model of how PSU is specifically related to anxiety. We discuss and review mental health constructs associated with PSU severity, based on prior literature. Next, we systematically review the research on PSU severity in relation to anxiety symptoms, given the recent growth of studies on this research question. Finally, we offer implications and recommendations for future research in this area.
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              The association between smartphone use, stress, and anxiety: A meta-analytic review


                Author and article information

                Front Psychiatry
                Front Psychiatry
                Front. Psychiatry
                Frontiers in Psychiatry
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                15 September 2020
                : 11
                Department of Teacher Training, University of Craiova , Craiova, Romania
                Author notes

                Edited by: Aviv M. Weinstein, Ariel University, Israel

                Reviewed by: Deena Marie Walker, Oregon Health and Science University, United States; Cheng-Fang Yen, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Jung-Seok Choi, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, South Korea

                *Correspondence: Aurel Pera, aurel.pera.ucv@

                This article was submitted to Addictive Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry

                Copyright © 2020 Pera

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 67, Pages: 6, Words: 2806
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                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry

                stress, depression, anxiety, behavior, smartphone


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