Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are serious late complications that can occur after the Fontan procedure. This study aimed to investigate the cumulative incidence of cirrhosis and HCC and to identify specific features distinguishing HCC from benign arterial-phase hyperenhancing (APHE) nodules that developed after the Fontan operation. We retrospectively enrolled 313 post-Fontan patients who had been followed for more than 5 years and had undergone ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) of the liver between January 2000 and August 2018. Cirrhosis was diagnosed radiologically. The estimated cumulative incidence rates of cirrhosis at 5, 10, 20, and 30 years after the Fontan operation were 1.3%, 9.2%, 56.6%, and 97.9%, respectively. Multiphasic CT revealed that 18 patients had APHE nodules that were ≥1 cm in size and showed washout in the portal venous phase (PVP)/delayed phase, which met current noninvasive HCC diagnosis criteria. Among them, only seven patients (38.9%, 7/18) were diagnosed with HCC. After cirrhosis developed, the annual incidence of HCC was 1.04%. The appearance of washout in the PVP ( p = 0.006), long time elapsed since the initial Fontan operation ( p = 0.04), large nodule size ( p = 0.03), and elevated serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) level ( p < 0.001) were significantly associated with HCC. In conclusion, cirrhosis is a frequent late complication after Fontan operation, especially after 10 years, and HCC is not a rare complication after cirrhosis development. Diagnosis of HCC should not be based solely on the current imaging criteria, and washout on PVP and clinical features might be helpful to differentiate HCC nodules from benign APHE nodules.