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Mapping and quantifying mammalian transcriptomes by RNA-Seq.

Nature Methods

statistics & numerical data, Software, Animals, Brain, metabolism, Chromosome Mapping, methods, Databases, Nucleic Acid, Alternative Splicing, Exons, Gene Expression Profiling, Liver, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Muscle, Skeletal, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Promoter Regions, Genetic, RNA, genetics, RNA Splicing, RNA, Messenger, Sensitivity and Specificity, Sequence Analysis, RNA, 3' Untranslated Regions, Algorithms

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      Abstract

      We have mapped and quantified mouse transcriptomes by deeply sequencing them and recording how frequently each gene is represented in the sequence sample (RNA-Seq). This provides a digital measure of the presence and prevalence of transcripts from known and previously unknown genes. We report reference measurements composed of 41-52 million mapped 25-base-pair reads for poly(A)-selected RNA from adult mouse brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissues. We used RNA standards to quantify transcript prevalence and to test the linear range of transcript detection, which spanned five orders of magnitude. Although >90% of uniquely mapped reads fell within known exons, the remaining data suggest new and revised gene models, including changed or additional promoters, exons and 3' untranscribed regions, as well as new candidate microRNA precursors. RNA splice events, which are not readily measured by standard gene expression microarray or serial analysis of gene expression methods, were detected directly by mapping splice-crossing sequence reads. We observed 1.45 x 10(5) distinct splices, and alternative splices were prominent, with 3,500 different genes expressing one or more alternate internal splices.

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      Most cited references 2

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      A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.
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        A Mef2 gene that generates a muscle-specific isoform via alternative mRNA splicing.

        Members of the myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor 2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors bind a conserved A/T-rich sequence in the control regions of numerous muscle-specific genes. Mammalian MEF2 proteins have been shown previously to be encoded by three genes, Mef2, xMef2, and Mef2c, each of which gives rise to multiple alternatively spliced transcripts. We describe the cloning of a new member of the MEF2 family from mice, termed MEF2D, which shares extensive homology with other MEF2 proteins but is the product of a separate gene. MEF2D binds to and activates transcription through the MEF2 site and forms heterodimers with other members of the MEF2 family. Deletion mutations show that the carboxyl terminus of MEF2D is required for efficient transactivation. MEF2D transcripts are widely expressed, but alternative splicing of MEF2D transcripts gives rise to a muscle-specific isoform which is induced during myoblast differentiation. The mouse Mef2, Mef2c, and Mef2d genes map to chromosomes 7, 13, and 3, respectively. The complexity of the MEF2 family of regulatory proteins provides the potential for fine-tuning of transcriptional responses as a consequence of combinatorial interactions among multiple MEF2 isoforms encoded by the four Mef2 genes.
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          Author and article information

          Journal
          10.1038/nmeth.1226
          18516045

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