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      Recent development in clinical applications of PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies for cancer immunotherapy

      1 , 2 , , 2 , , 2

      Journal of Hematology & Oncology

      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Antibodies against programmed death (PD) pathway are revolutionizing cancer immunotherapy. Currently five antibodies against PD-1/PD-L1 have been approved. The clinical use of these antibodies is rapidly expanding. Incorporation of PD antibodies into chemotherapy regimens is in active clinical investigations. The combination of pembrolizumab with carboplatin and pemetrexed has been approved for the first line therapy of metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. Combination of PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies with small molecule inhibitors such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and IDO inhibitors are in active clinical trials. This review summarized recent development in clinical trials of PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies for cancer immunotherapy.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Nivolumab for classical Hodgkin lymphoma after autologous stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin failure: a prospective phase 2 multi-cohort study

          Background Malignant cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) are characterised by genetic alterations at the 9p24·1 locus. This leads to overexpression of the programmed death 1 (PD-1) ligands and enables tumour cells to evade immune surveillance. A phase 1b study showed that nivolumab, a PD-1-blocking antibody, produced a high response rate in patients with relapsed and refractory cHL, with an acceptable safety profile. This phase 2 study assessed the clinical benefit of nivolumab monotherapy in patients with cHL after autologous stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin failure. Methods This ongoing phase 2 study (NCT02181738) assessed the efficacy and safety of nivolumab, administered intravenously over 60 minutes at 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks, in adult patients with cHL who had failed both autologous stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. The primary endpoint was objective response rate by independent radiologic review committee (IRRC) assessment. Secondary and other endpoints included duration of response, safety, and assessment of PD-L1 and PD-L2 loci and PD-L1 and PD-L2 protein expression. Findings Among 80 treated patients, the median number of prior therapies was four (range 3–15). With a mean (SD) follow-up of 8·6 months (2·02), objective response rate per IRRC was 66·3% (53/80). The most common drug-related adverse events (≥15%) included fatigue, infusion-related reaction, and rash. The most common drug-related grade 3–4 adverse events were neutropenia and increased lipase levels (both n=4). The most common serious adverse event (any grade) was pyrexia (n=3). Interpretation Nivolumab demonstrated a high response rate and an acceptable safety profile in patients with cHL who progressed following autologous stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Nivolumab may therefore provide a novel treatment option for a patient population with a high unmet need. Ongoing follow-up will help to assess the durability of response. Funding Bristol-Myers Squibb.
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            Survival, Durable Response, and Long-Term Safety in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Receiving Nivolumab.

            Blockade of the programmed death-1 inhibitory cell-surface molecule on immune cells using the fully human immunoglobulin G4 antibody nivolumab mediates tumor regression in a portion of patients with advanced treatment-refractory solid tumors. We report clinical activity, survival, and long-term safety in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with nivolumab in a phase I study with expansion cohorts.
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              Current status and perspectives in translational biomarker research for PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade therapy

              Modulating immune inhibitory pathways has been a major recent breakthrough in cancer treatment. Checkpoint blockade antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) have demonstrated acceptable toxicity, promising clinical responses, durable disease control, and improved survival in some patients with advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and other tumor types. About 20 % of advanced NSCLC patients and 30 % of advanced melanoma patients experience tumor responses from checkpoint blockade monotherapy, with better clinical responses seen with the combination of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Given the power of these new therapies, it is important to understand the complex and dynamic nature of host immune responses and the regulation of additional molecules in the tumor microenvironment and normal organs in response to the checkpoint blockade therapies. In this era of precision oncology, there remains a largely unmet need to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from immunotherapy, to optimize the monitoring assays for tumor-specific immune responses, to develop strategies to improve clinical efficacy, and to identify biomarkers so that immune-related adverse events can be avoided. At this time, PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining using 22C3 antibody is the only FDA-approved companion diagnostic for patients with NSCLC-treated pembrolizumab, but more are expected to come to market. We here summarize the current knowledge, clinical efficacy, potential immune biomarkers, and associated assays for immune checkpoint blockade therapies in advanced solid tumors.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                liubingshan@hotmail.com
                songyongping001@163.com
                delong_liu@nymc.edu
                Journal
                J Hematol Oncol
                J Hematol Oncol
                Journal of Hematology & Oncology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-8722
                1 December 2017
                1 December 2017
                2017
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1799 4638, GRID grid.414008.9, School of Basic Medical Sciences and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, ; Zhengzhou, China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1799 4638, GRID grid.414008.9, Henan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, ; 127 Dongming Road, Zhengzhou, 450008 China
                Article
                541
                10.1186/s13045-017-0541-9
                5712158
                29195503
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: NSFC grant no. 81470287, YPS
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

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