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      Extracellular Actin Impairs Glomerular Capillary Repair in Experimental Mesangioproliferative Glomerulonephritis

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          Exogenous administration of actin prevents tumour growth in mice by specifically antagonizing angiogenin, a potent inducer of neovascularization. To investigate whether the angiogenin/actin system is also of importance in renal disease, we examined the effect of actin during glomerular capillary repair in anti-Thy-1.1 mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. Male Wistar rats were injected intravenously with actin, a control protein, i.e. albumin, or vehicle alone at 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48 h after disease induction. On day 8, actin-treated rats showed significantly more microaneurysms and persistent mesangiolysis as compared to both control groups. This was associated with increased proteinuria in actin-treated rats. Moreover, actin-treated rats showed increased counts of glomerular macrophages (+40%) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (+100%) on day 3 as well as a decrease in glomerular endothelial area on days 3 and 8. However, no difference in early glomerular endothelial as well as non-endothelial cell proliferation was noted in actin-treated rats as compared to controls. Actin treatment had no apparent influence on mesangial cell activation (i.e. de novo expression of α-smooth muscle actin) or glomerular accumulation of fibronectin or type IV collagen. Additional in vitro studies demonstrated that extracellular actin inhibits the angiogenin but not VEGF<sub>165</sub>-induced proliferation of (glomerular) endothelial cells. Moreover, actin inhibited other, yet unidentified, serum-derived angiogenic factors. In conclusion, exogenous actin impairs glomerular capillary repair in experimental mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis possibly due to interference with angiogenic factors such as angiogenin. Our combined in vivo and in vitro observations suggest that the release of intracellular actin during mesangiolysis is an endogenous pathway by which glomerular capillary damage is augmented.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Recovery of Damaged Glomerular Capillary Network with Endothelial Cell Apoptosis in Experimental Proliferative Glomerulonephritis

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            Organogenesis and angiogenin.

            Our search for an angiogenesis-inducing factor in culture medium conditioned by human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) was inspired by the 'organizer' hypothesis originally postulated by Spemann. It led us to the isolation of angiogenin, a 14 kD protein homologous to pancreatic ribonuclease and one of the most potent stimulators of blood vessel formation known. This review summarizes the properties of angiogenin, its enzymatic and three-dimensional relationship to ribonuclease A (RNase A), those aspects of its structure that are critical for its biological function, and the therapeutic potential of angiogenin inhibition. Despite having the same arrangement of catalytic residues as RNase A, angiogenin has very low enzymatic activity. It lacks one of the four disulphide loops of RNase A; instead, the corresponding residues form part of a cell binding region. Both the catalytic activity and cell binding site are essential for angiogenesis. Angiogenin binds to cell-surface actin in confluent endothelial cells and to an as yet uncharacterized receptor on proliferating cells. Internalization and translocation to the nucleolus are also required for activity. Inhibitors of angiogenin can block angiogenesis in vitro and prevent tumour growth in vivo. Thus, a noncytotoxic neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevents the establishment of HT-29 human tumour xenografts in up to 65% of treated athymic mice. In those tumours that develop, the number of vascular elements is reduced. Actin also prevents the establishment of tumours while exhibiting no toxic effects at daily doses > 50 times the molar amount of circulating mouse angiogenin. These antagonists also inhibit the appearance of tumours derived from two other human tumour cell lines. Inhibition of the action of angiogenin may prove to be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant disease.
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              Angiogenin enhances actin acceleration of plasminogen activation.

               Alan J. Riordan,  G Hu (1993)
              Angiogenin interacts with actin to form a complex, which like actin itself, can accelerate plasmin generation by tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). In contrast to actin, the angiogenin-actin complex does not inhibit plasmin activity. In the presence of the angiogenin-actin complex, the overall proteolytic activity of a mixture of plasminogen and tPA is 11-fold higher than in its absence and 6-fold higher than in the presence of actin alone. These results suggest that binding and displacement of cell surface actin by angiogenin might be involved in cell migration and tumor invasion, processes that depend on the proteolytic degradation of basement membrane and the extracellular matrix. Therefore, the activity of the angiogenin-actin complex reported here may have physiological and pathological significance in the process of angiogenin-induced angiogenesis.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                April 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 93
                : 4
                : e158-e167
                Divisions of Nephrology, Universities of aAachen and bHamburg, Germany; cDepartment of Pathology, University of Geneva, Switzerland; dDepartment of Clinical Pathology, UniversityofVienna,Austria
                70240 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;93:e158–e167
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 37, Pages: 1
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                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Actin, Angiogenin, Glomerulonephritis, Endothelial cell


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