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      Diagnosis, Treatment, and Long-Term Management of Kawasaki Disease : A Statement for Health Professionals From the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association

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          Abstract

          Kawasaki disease is an acute self-limited vasculitis of childhood that is characterized by fever, bilateral nonexudative conjunctivitis, erythema of the lips and oral mucosa, changes in the extremities, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Coronary artery aneurysms or ectasia develop in approximately 15% to 25% of untreated children and may lead to ischemic heart disease or sudden death. A multidisciplinary committee of experts was convened to revise the American Heart Association recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease. The writing group proposes a new algorithm to aid clinicians in deciding which children with fever for > or =5 days and < or =4 classic criteria should undergo echocardiography, receive intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) treatment, or both for Kawasaki disease. The writing group reviews the available data regarding the initial treatment for children with acute Kawasaki disease, as well for those who have persistent or recrudescent fever despite initial therapy with IVIG, including IVIG retreatment and treatment with corticosteroids, tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, and abciximab. Long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease is tailored to the degree of coronary involvement; recommendations regarding antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy, physical activity, follow-up assessment, and the appropriate diagnostic procedures to evaluate cardiac disease are classified according to risk strata. Recommendations for the initial evaluation, treatment in the acute phase, and long-term management of patients with Kawasaki disease are intended to assist physicians in understanding the range of acceptable approaches for caring for patients with Kawasaki disease. The ultimate decisions for case management must be made by physicians in light of the particular conditions presented by individual patients.

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          Most cited references 159

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          The treatment of Kawasaki syndrome with intravenous gamma globulin.

          We compared the efficacy of intravenous gamma globulin plus aspirin with that of aspirin alone in reducing the frequency of coronary-artery abnormalities in children with acute Kawasaki syndrome in a multicenter, randomized trial. Children randomly assigned to the gamma globulin group received intravenous gamma globulin, 400 mg per kilogram of body weight per day, for four consecutive days; both treatment groups received aspirin, 100 mg per kilogram per day, through the 14th day of illness, then 3 to 5 mg per kilogram per day. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were interpreted blindly and independently by two or more readers. Two weeks after enrollment, coronary-artery abnormalities were present in 18 of 78 children (23 percent) in the aspirin group, as compared with 6 of 75 (8 percent) in the gamma globulin group (P = 0.01). Seven weeks after enrollment, abnormalities were present in 14 of 79 children (18 percent) in the aspirin group and in 3 of 79 (4 percent) in the gamma globulin group (P = 0.005). No child had serious adverse effects from receiving gamma globulin. We conclude that high-dose intravenous gamma globulin is safe and effective in reducing the prevalence of coronary-artery abnormalities when administered early in the course of Kawasaki syndrome.
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            High-dose intravenous gammaglobulin for Kawasaki disease.

            The ability of high-dose intravenous gammaglobulin (IVGG) to prevent the coronary artery lesion of Kawasaki disease has been studied in a multicentre controlled trial of IVGG plus aspirin versus aspirin alone, aspirin being the conventional treatment for Kawasaki disease. Patients were allocated at random to aspirin (45 cases) or IVGG (40 cases), there being no significant intergroup differences in age, sex ratio, duration of disease until the start of treatment, or severity. The development of coronary artery dilatation was monitored by two-dimensional echocardiography. Within 29 days of the onset of the disease, this lesion had developed in 19 cases (42%) in the aspirin group and in 6 cases (15%) in the IVGG group. There were no new instances of this lesion: in the period 30-60 days coronary artery dilatation persisted in 14 and 3 cases, respectively. In patients found to have echocardiographic abnormalities selective coronary arteriography was done 30-60 days after onset of Kawasaki disease and the lesion was confirmed in 1 of the 6 cases in the IVGG group and in 11 of the 19 controls. High-dose IVGG seems to reduce the frequency of coronary artery abnormalities in patients with Kawasaki disease.
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              Initial intravenous gammaglobulin treatment failure in Kawasaki disease.

              To determine initial intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIG) treatment failures in Kawasaki disease (KD) and to report the outcome of retreatment and our use of pulse intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide in patients with persistent KD. Retrospective analysis of the treatment and response of children with KD over 3 years. Fifty (77%) of 65 patients completely responded to a single treatment with IVIG (2 g/kg). Fifteen patients (23%) required retreatment; 10 patients fully responded but 5 had persistent disease (3 developed coronary aneurysms and 4 developed coronary artery thrombosis). Four of these 5 patients with persistent disease were treated with pulse IV methylprednisolone and 2 were also treated with IV cyclophosphamide. There was no progression of coronary aneurysms and no deaths. No initial patient characteristics predicted IVIG treatment failure or the development of coronary aneurysms. Nearly 23% of patients with KD may require retreatment and 8% may develop coronary aneurysm. Additional antiinflammatory therapy, such as IV methylprednisolone and IV cyclophosphamide, may be helpful in treating persistent KD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                October 26 2004
                October 26 2004
                : 110
                : 17
                : 2747-2771
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.0000145143.19711.78
                15505111
                © 2004

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