In the present investigations the viral transneuronal labeling method, which is able to reveal hierarchial chains of central nervous system (CNS) neurons, was applied to identify sites in the CNS connected with the ovary and presumably involved in the control of ovarian functions. Pseudorabies virus was injected into the ovaries of rats and a few days later (at various times after the injection) the spinal cord and brain were examined for virus-infected neurons from the ovary. The virus-labeled nerve cells were identified by immunocytochemistry using polyclonal antiviral antibody. Virus-labeled neurons were detected both in the spinal cord and the brain. In the spinal cord such elements were observed in the intermediolateral cell column, in the dorsal horn close to the marginal zone and in the central autonomic nucleus. In the medulla oblongata and pons, neurons of several nuclei and cell groups (area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, dorsal vagal complex, nucleus ambiguus, paragigantocellular nucleus, parapyramidal nucleus, A1, A5 and A7 cell groups, caudal raphe nuclei, locus ceruleus, subceruleus nucleus, Barrington’s nucleus, Kölliker-Fuse nucleus) were found to be transneuronally labeled. In the mesencephalon, the ventrolateral part of the periaqueductal gray matter contained virus-labeled neurons. In the diencephalon, a very intensive cell body labeling was observed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and a few virus-infected neurons could be detected in the lateral and dorsal hypothalamus, in the arcuate nucleus, zona incerta, perifornical area and in the anterior hypothalamus. Concerning the telencephalic structures, virus-labeled cells were found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the central amygdala nucleus. These findings provide the first neuromorphological evidence for the existence of a multisynaptic neuronal pathway between the ovary and the CNS, and give a detailed account of the structures involved in this pathway.