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      eCROPS-CA: a systematic approach toward effective and sustainable cancer prevention in rural China

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          Abstract

          Background

          Effective prevention against cancers depends heavily on sustained individual efforts practicing protective behaviors and avoiding risk factors in a complex sociocultural context, which requires continuous and personalized supports. Contemporary prevention relies primarily on strategies targeting general population with limited attention being paid to individualized approaches. This study tests a novel package called, in acronym of core intervention components, eCROPS-CA that leverages protective behaviors against over 80% leading cancers among high risk individuals via continuous and tailored counseling by village doctors.

          Methods/Design

          The study utilizes a quesi-RCT design involving 4320 high risk individuals selected, via rapid and detailed risk assessments, from about 72,000 farmers aged 35+ in 36 administrative villages randomized into equal intervention and delayed intervention arms. The intervention arm receives baseline and semiannual follow up evaluations plus eCROPS-CA for 5 years; while the control arm, only the baseline and follow-up evaluations for the first 5 years and eCROPS-CA starting from the 6 th year if the intervention is proved effective. eCROPS-CA comprises electronic supports and supervision (e), counseling cancer prevention (C), recipe for objective behaviors (R), operational toolkit (O), performance-based incentives (P), and screening and assessment (S). Evaluation measures include: incidence and stage of the leading cancers, cancer-related knowledge, attitudes and practices; easy biophysical indicators (e.g., body mass index, blood pressure); intervention compliance, acceptance of the package.

          Discussion

          The prevention package incorporates key success factors in a synergetic way toward cost-effectiveness and long-term sustainability. It targets a set rather than any single cancer; choses village doctors as key solution to the widespread lack of professional manpower in implementing personalized and thus relatively sophisticated prevention; adopts real-time monitoring in reaching continuous improvement; utilizes smart web aids to enable prioritizing complex determinants of objective behaviors, linking counseling sessions happened at different time points and hence delivering highly coordinated prevention; uses 2-stage risk assessment models in identifying high risk individuals so as to focus on the most needed; applies standardized operation procedures in simplifying and smoothing behavior intervention yet ensuring delivery of essential steps and key elements.

          Trials registry

          ISRCTN33269053

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1253-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008.

          Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed. Copyright © 2010 UICC.
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            Global cancer statistics, 2002.

             D Parkin,  F Bray,  J Ferlay (2005)
            Estimates of the worldwide incidence, mortality and prevalence of 26 cancers in the year 2002 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The results are presented here in summary form, including the geographic variation between 20 large "areas" of the world. Overall, there were 10.9 million new cases, 6.7 million deaths, and 24.6 million persons alive with cancer (within three years of diagnosis). The most commonly diagnosed cancers are lung (1.35 million), breast (1.15 million), and colorectal (1 million); the most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.18 million deaths), stomach cancer (700,000 deaths), and liver cancer (598,000 deaths). The most prevalent cancer in the world is breast cancer (4.4 million survivors up to 5 years following diagnosis). There are striking variations in the risk of different cancers by geographic area. Most of the international variation is due to exposure to known or suspected risk factors related to lifestyle or environment, and provides a clear challenge to prevention.
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              • Article: not found

              Global cancer statistics in the year 2000.

               D Parkin (2001)
              Estimation of the burden of cancer in terms of incidence, mortality, and prevalence is a first step to appreciating appropriate control measures in a global context. The latest results of such an exercise, based on the most recent available international data, show that there were 10 million new cases, 6 million deaths, and 22 million people living with cancer in 2000. The most common cancers in terms of new cases were lung (1.2 million), breast (1.05 million), colorectal (945,000), stomach (876,000), and liver (564,000). The profile varies greatly in different populations, and the evidence suggests that this variation is mainly a consequence of different lifestyle and environmental factors, which should be amenable to preventive interventions. World population growth and ageing imply a progressive increase in the cancer burden--15 million new cases and 10 million new deaths are expected in 2020, even if current rates remain unchanged.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [ ]School of Health Service Management, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui China
                [ ]Department of Literature Review and Analysis, Library of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui China
                [ ]Anhui Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, Anhui China
                [ ]Luan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Luan, Anhui China
                [ ]Collaboration Center for Cancer Control, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui China
                Contributors
                jingchai82@sina.com
                1264854421@qq.com
                853571123@qq.com
                jing_hp@sina.com
                ahahcyj@163.com
                1061390122@sina.com
                xiao816meng@sina.cn
                1010066583@qq.com
                1252509750@qq.com
                1214984721@qq.com
                295240260@qq.com
                1350612172@163.com
                dbwang@vip.sina.com
                Journal
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2407
                8 April 2015
                8 April 2015
                2015
                : 15
                1253
                10.1186/s12885-015-1253-6
                4416351
                25886568
                © Chai et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Study Protocol
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                © The Author(s) 2015

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