Background/Aims: Various abnormalities of the immune system have been demonstrated in patients on hemodialysis (HD). We hypothesize that the imbalance between type 1 helper T (Th1) cells and type 2 helper T (Th2) cells in patients on HD contributes to these abnormalities. Furthermore, we investigate the relationship between the Th1/Th2 imbalance and HD duration. Methods: We measured the serum levels of soluble CD26 (sCD26) and soluble CD30 (sCD30) in 47 patients on HD and in 13 patients with chronic renal failure not on HD and analyzed the effect of HD duration on the serum levels of sCD26 and sCD30. Results: The serum level of sCD26 in the HD group was significantly lower than that in the control group. On the other hand, the serum levels of sCD30 in the HD group and in the CRF group were significantly higher than in the control group. In the short-term HD group (<1 year), the serum levels of sCD26 were lower and the sCD30 levels higher than those in middle-term HD group (1–10 years). Conclusions: In the HD group, the Th1/Th2 balance may shift towards Th2 dominance. It is possible that this imbalance contributes to the abnormality of the immune system in HD patients.