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      Is Infrared Thermography Reliable to Assess Pain in the Trapezius Muscle Region?

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          The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of infrared thermography (IT) in skin temperature analysis of people with pain complaints in the upper trapezius muscle.


          A total of 82 subjects (24.8 ± 6.9 years; 63.8 ± 13.1 kg) of both genders who had moderate (VAS-3) or severe pain in the upper trapezius muscle were evaluated. Skin temperatures of four areas (ROIs) were analyzed by IT using a FLIR camera (model T640SC - Sweden). Each evaluator performed two area analyses at different times.


          The evaluation of the four areas indicated a very strong overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for both intra-examiner (Examiner 1: ICC = 0.936; 95% CI = 0.905–0.959; P < 0.001; Examiner 2: ICC = 0.979; 95% CI = 0.968–0.987; P < 0.001) and inter-examiner (Measurement 1: ICC = 0.933; 95% CI = 0.902–0.958; P < 0.001; Measurement 2: ICC = 0.979; 95% CI = 0.968–0.987; P < 0.001). The ICC was regular on ROI 3 in the measurement 1 inter-exam test, and the ROI 1, ROI 2, and ROI 4 values were strong; all points were very strong in measurement 2. The ICC was rated from strong to very strong for both examiners in the intra-examiner test at all points.


          IT was reproducible in measuring the upper trapezius muscle skin temperature, and the intra and inter-examiner agreement levels can be used as a reliable tool in clinical practice.

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          A power primer.

          One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided here. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for eight standard statistical tests: (a) the difference between independent means, (b) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (c) the difference between independent rs, (d) the sign test, (e) the difference between independent proportions, (f) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (g) one-way analysis of variance, and (h) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
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            Medical applications of infrared thermography: A review

            Abnormal body temperature is a natural indicator of illness. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a fast, passive, non-contact and non-invasive alternative to conventional clinical thermometers for monitoring body temperature. Besides, IRT can also map body surface temperature remotely. Last five decades witnessed a steady increase in the utility of thermal imaging cameras to obtain correlations between the thermal physiology and skin temperature. IRT has been successfully used in diagnosis of breast cancer, diabetes neuropathy and peripheral vascular disorders. It has also been used to detect problems associated with gynecology, kidney transplantation, dermatology, heart, neonatal physiology, fever screening and brain imaging. With the advent of modern infrared cameras, data acquisition and processing techniques, it is now possible to have real time high resolution thermographic images, which is likely to surge further research in this field. The present efforts are focused on automatic analysis of temperature distribution of regions of interest and their statistical analysis for detection of abnormalities. This critical review focuses on advances in the area of medical IRT. The basics of IRT, essential theoretical background, the procedures adopted for various measurements and applications of IRT in various medical fields are discussed in this review. Besides background information is provided for beginners for better understanding of the subject.
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              Classification of factors influencing the use of infrared thermography in humans: A review


                Author and article information

                The Open Sports Sciences Journal
                Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
                May 24 2021
                May 24 2021
                : 14
                : 1
                : 25-29
                © 2021



                Medicine,Chemistry,Life sciences
                Medicine, Chemistry, Life sciences


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