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      Biomass-derived porous carbon materials with different dimensions for supercapacitor electrodes: a review

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          Research progress in biomass-derived porous carbon materials with different dimensions for supercapacitor electrodes.


          The exploration of renewable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly electrode materials with high adsorption, fast ion/electron transport, and tunable surface chemistry is urgently needed for the development of next-generation biocompatible energy-storage devices. In recent years, biomass-derived carbon electrode materials for energy storage have attracted significant attention because of their widespread availability, renewable nature, and low cost. More importantly, their inherent uniform and precise biological structures can be utilized as templates for fabricating electrode materials with controlled and well-defined geometries. Meanwhile, the basic elements of biomass are carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The special naturally ordered hierarchical structures as well as abundant surface properties of biomass-derived carbon materials are compatible with electrochemical reaction processes such as ion transfer and diffusion. To date, a series of novel porous carbon materials with different dimensions have been prepared by various methods using biomass as the raw material, which is an important field in the fabrication of supercapacitor electrode materials. Herein, we summarized recently reported biomass-derived carbon materials with one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional structures and their applications as carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitors. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives of the carbon-based electrode materials with respect to the supercapacitor's performance were closely highlighted.

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          Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films

          We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10 13 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.
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            Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon

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              Materials for electrochemical capacitors.

              Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy using either ion adsorption (electrochemical double layer capacitors) or fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitors). They can complement or replace batteries in electrical energy storage and harvesting applications, when high power delivery or uptake is needed. A notable improvement in performance has been achieved through recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms and the development of advanced nanostructured materials. The discovery that ion desolvation occurs in pores smaller than the solvated ions has led to higher capacitance for electrochemical double layer capacitors using carbon electrodes with subnanometre pores, and opened the door to designing high-energy density devices using a variety of electrolytes. Combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries. The use of carbon nanotubes has further advanced micro-electrochemical capacitors, enabling flexible and adaptable devices to be made. Mathematical modelling and simulation will be the key to success in designing tomorrow's high-energy and high-power devices.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Materials Chemistry A
                J. Mater. Chem. A
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                July 9 2019
                : 7
                : 27
                : 16028-16045
                [1 ]CAS Key Laboratory of Carbon Materials
                [2 ]Institute of Coal Chemistry
                [3 ]Chinese Academy of Sciences
                [4 ]Taiyuan
                [5 ]China
                [6 ]Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics
                [7 ]Nanchang
                [8 ]School of Environment and Safety
                [9 ]Taiyuan University of Science and Technology
                [10 ]Taiyuan 030024
                © 2019




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