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      Design and Synthesis of New Quinazolin-4-one Derivatives with Negative mGlu7 Receptor Modulation Activity and Antipsychotic-Like Properties

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          Abstract

          Following the glutamatergic theory of schizophrenia and based on our previous study regarding the antipsychotic-like activity of mGlu7 NAMs, we synthesized a new compound library containing 103 members, which were examined for NAM mGlu7 activity in the T-REx 293 cell line expressing a recombinant human mGlu7 receptor. Out of the twenty-two scaffolds examined, active compounds were found only within the quinazolinone chemotype. 2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-6-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one (A9-7, ALX-171, mGlu7 IC50 = 6.14 µM) was selective over other group III mGlu receptors (mGlu4 and mGlu8), exhibited satisfactory drug-like properties in preliminary DMPK profiling, and was further tested in animal models of antipsychotic-like activity, assessing the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. ALX-171 reversed DOI-induced head twitches and MK-801-induced disruptions of social interactions or cognition in the novel object recognition test and spatial delayed alternation test. On the other hand, the efficacy of the compound was not observed in the MK-801-induced hyperactivity test or prepulse inhibition. In summary, the observed antipsychotic activity profile of ALX-171 justifies the further development of the group of quinazolin-4-one derivatives in the search for a new drug candidate for schizophrenia treatment.

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          A short history of SHELX

          An account is given of the development of the SHELX system of computer programs from SHELX -76 to the present day. In addition to identifying useful innovations that have come into general use through their implementation in SHELX , a critical analysis is presented of the less-successful features, missed opportunities and desirable improvements for future releases of the software. An attempt is made to understand how a program originally designed for photographic intensity data, punched cards and computers over 10000 times slower than an average modern personal computer has managed to survive for so long. SHELXL is the most widely used program for small-molecule refinement and SHELXS and SHELXD are often employed for structure solution despite the availability of objectively superior programs. SHELXL also finds a niche for the refinement of macromolecules against high-resolution or twinned data; SHELXPRO acts as an interface for macromolecular applications. SHELXC , SHELXD and SHELXE are proving useful for the experimental phasing of macromolecules, especially because they are fast and robust and so are often employed in pipelines for high-throughput phasing. This paper could serve as a general literature citation when one or more of the open-source SHELX programs (and the Bruker AXS version SHELXTL ) are employed in the course of a crystal-structure determination.
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            WinGXsuite for small-molecule single-crystal crystallography

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              Metabotropic glutamate receptors: physiology, pharmacology, and disease.

              The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are family C G-protein-coupled receptors that participate in the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability throughout the central nervous system. The mGluRs bind glutamate within a large extracellular domain and transmit signals through the receptor protein to intracellular signaling partners. A great deal of progress has been made in determining the mechanisms by which mGluRs are activated, proteins with which they interact, and orthosteric and allosteric ligands that can modulate receptor activity. The widespread expression of mGluRs makes these receptors particularly attractive drug targets, and recent studies continue to validate the therapeutic utility of mGluR ligands in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia.
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                Journal
                IJMCFK
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                IJMS
                1422-0067
                February 2023
                January 19 2023
                : 24
                : 3
                : 1981
                Article
                10.3390/ijms24031981
                8a34d3a4-8f91-4927-82e7-bbb8c90de093
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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