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      Transforming Growth Factor-βs: A Multifunctional Cytokine Family

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          Abstract

          Knowledge of the structure of the first recognized transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β<sub>1</sub>) has led to the identification of more than two dozen structurally related peptides which appear of crucial importance in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell differentiation and embryogenesis. TGF-β<sub>1</sub> and its close homologs (TGFβ<sub>2-5</sub>) are multifunctional peptides whose effects on cell functions are dependent upon the cell type, the environment and the presence of other growth factors. TGF-β<sub>1</sub> is produced and secreted as a latent macromolecular complex. One of the major steps in the control of TGF-β activity may thus be its release (activation) from its latent form upon the effect of local factors. Adrenocortical cells may be taken as an example in which autocrine production of TGF-β may be a component of a negative regulatory loop in balance with the positive effect of a systemic hormone (ACTH) in controlling the expression of the cell steroidogenic differentiated functions. In this system, latent TGF-β can be activated by an ACTH-induced secreted protein (CISP), a member of the thrombospondin family. This points to the importance of the functional interaction between TGF-βs and extracellular matrix components in the local regulation of cell activities.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          HRE
          10.1159/issn.0018-5051
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-6290-4
          978-3-318-00047-4
          0018-5051
          2571-6603
          1996
          1996
          09 December 2008
          : 45
          : 3-5
          : 222-226
          Affiliations
          CEA, Biochimie des Régulations Cellulaires Endocrines, INSERM Unité 244, Département de Biologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CEN.G, Grenoble, France
          Article
          184792 Horm Res 1996;45:222–226
          10.1159/000184792
          © 1996 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 5
          Categories
          Hormone Binding Proteins: Physiology and Clinical Implications

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