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      Angiogenesis in Lymph Nodes Is a Critical Regulator of Immune Response and Lymphoma Growth

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          Abstract

          Tumor-induced remodeling of the microenvironment in lymph nodes (LNs) includes the formation of blood vessels, which goes beyond the regulation of metabolism, and shaping a survival niche for tumor cells. In contrast to solid tumors, which primarily rely on neo-angiogenesis, hematopoietic malignancies usually grow within pre-vascularized autochthonous niches in secondary lymphatic organs or the bone marrow. The mechanisms of vascular remodeling in expanding LNs during infection-induced responses have been studied in more detail; in contrast, insights into the conditions of lymphoma growth and lodging remain enigmatic. Based on previous murine studies and clinical trials in human, we conclude that there is not a universal LN-specific angiogenic program applicable. Instead, signaling pathways that are tightly connected to autochthonous and infiltrating cell types contribute variably to LN vascular expansion. Inflammation related angiogenesis within LNs relies on dendritic cell derived pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression in fibroblastic reticular cells, which in turn triggers vessel growth. In high-grade B cell lymphoma, angiogenesis correlates with poor prognosis. Lymphoma cells immigrate and grow in LNs and provide pro-angiogenic growth factors themselves. In contrast to infectious stimuli that impact on LN vasculature, they do not trigger the typical inflammatory and hypoxia-related stroma-remodeling cascade. Blood vessels in LNs are unique in selective recruitment of lymphocytes via high endothelial venules (HEVs). The dissemination routes of neoplastic lymphocytes are usually disease stage dependent. Early seeding via the blood stream requires the expression of the homeostatic chemokine receptor CCR7 and of L-selectin, both cooperate to facilitate transmigration of tumor and also of protective tumor-reactive lymphocytes via HEV structures. In this view, the HEV route is not only relevant for lymphoma cell homing, but also for a continuous immunosurveillance. We envision that HEV functional and structural alterations during lymphomagenesis are not only key to vascular remodeling, but also impact on tumor cell accessibility when targeted by T cell–mediated immunotherapies.

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          Most cited references 356

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          Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation

          The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: linking inflammation and cancer.

            Many cancer immunotherapies developed in experimental animals have been tested in clinical trials. Although some have shown modest clinical effects, most have not been effective. Recent studies have identified myeloid-origin cells that are potent suppressors of tumor immunity and therefore a significant impediment to cancer immunotherapy. "Myeloid-derived suppressor cells" (MDSC) accumulate in the blood, lymph nodes, and bone marrow and at tumor sites in most patients and experimental animals with cancer and inhibit both adaptive and innate immunity. MDSC are induced by tumor-secreted and host-secreted factors, many of which are proinflammatory molecules. The induction of MDSC by proinflammatory mediators led to the hypothesis that inflammation promotes the accumulation of MDSC that down-regulate immune surveillance and antitumor immunity, thereby facilitating tumor growth. This article reviews the characterization and suppressive mechanisms used by MDSC to block tumor immunity and describes the mechanisms by which inflammation promotes tumor progression through the induction of MDSC.
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              Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells that expand during cancer, inflammation and infection, and that have a remarkable ability to suppress T-cell responses. These cells constitute a unique component of the immune system that regulates immune responses in healthy individuals and in the context of various diseases. In this Review, we discuss the origin, mechanisms of expansion and suppressive functions of MDSCs, as well as the potential to target these cells for therapeutic benefit.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                03 December 2020
                2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                1 Translational Tumor Immunology, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine , Berlin, Germany
                2 Microenvironmental Regulation in Autoimmunity and Cancer, Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine , Berlin, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Martina Seiffert, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Germany

                Reviewed by: Tanja Nicole Hartmann, University of Freiburg Medical Center, Germany; Patricia Perez Galan, Institut de Recerca Biomèdica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Spain

                *Correspondence: Lutz Menzel, lutz.menzel@ 123456mdc-berlin.de ; Armin Rehm, arehm@ 123456mdc-berlin.de

                This article was submitted to Cancer Immunity and Immunotherapy, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2020.591741
                7744479
                Copyright © 2020 Menzel, Höpken and Rehm

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 357, Pages: 25, Words: 12568
                Funding
                Funded by: Wilhelm Sander-Stiftung 10.13039/100008672
                Funded by: Deutsche Krebshilfe 10.13039/501100005972
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

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