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      Highly-integrated, miniaturized, stretchable electronic systems based on stacked multilayer network materials

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          Abstract

          Elastic stretchability and function density represent two key figures of merits for stretchable inorganic electronics. Various design strategies have been reported to provide both high levels of stretchability and function density, but the function densities are mostly below 80%. While the stacked device layout can overcome this limitation, the soft elastomers used in previous studies could highly restrict the deformation of stretchable interconnects. Here, we introduce stacked multilayer network materials as a general platform to incorporate individual components and stretchable interconnects, without posing any essential constraint to their deformations. Quantitative analyses show a substantial enhancement (e.g., by ~7.5 times) of elastic stretchability of serpentine interconnects as compared to that based on stacked soft elastomers. The proposed strategy allows demonstration of a miniaturized electronic system (11 mm by 10 mm), with a moderate elastic stretchability (~20%) and an unprecedented areal coverage (~110%), which can serve as compass display, somatosensory mouse, and physiological-signal monitor.

          Abstract

          Abstract

          Stacked multilayer network materials offer powerful platforms to achieve highly integrated, miniaturized, stretchable electronics.

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          Most cited references76

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          Epidermal electronics.

          We report classes of electronic systems that achieve thicknesses, effective elastic moduli, bending stiffnesses, and areal mass densities matched to the epidermis. Unlike traditional wafer-based technologies, laminating such devices onto the skin leads to conformal contact and adequate adhesion based on van der Waals interactions alone, in a manner that is mechanically invisible to the user. We describe systems incorporating electrophysiological, temperature, and strain sensors, as well as transistors, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, radio frequency inductors, capacitors, oscillators, and rectifying diodes. Solar cells and wireless coils provide options for power supply. We used this type of technology to measure electrical activity produced by the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles and show that the resulting data contain sufficient information for an unusual type of computer game controller.
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            A laser-engraved wearable sensor for sensitive detection of uric acid and tyrosine in sweat

            Wearable sweat sensors have the potential to provide continuous measurements of useful biomarkers. However, current sensors cannot accurately detect low analyte concentrations, lack multimodal sensing or are difficult to fabricate at large scale. We report an entirely laser-engraved sensor for simultaneous sweat sampling, chemical sensing and vital-sign monitoring. We demonstrate continuous detection of temperature, respiration rate and low concentrations of uric acid and tyrosine, analytes associated with diseases such as gout and metabolic disorders. We test the performance of the device in both physically trained and untrained subjects under exercise and after a protein-rich diet. We also evaluate its utility for gout monitoring in patients and healthy controls through a purine-rich meal challenge. Levels of uric acid in sweat were higher in patients with gout than in healthy individuals, and a similar trend was observed in serum.
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              Skin-integrated wireless haptic interfaces for virtual and augmented reality

              Traditional technologies for virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) create human experiences through visual and auditory stimuli that replicate sensations associated with the physical world. The most widespread VR and AR systems use head-mounted displays, accelerometers and loudspeakers as the basis for three-dimensional, computer-generated environments that can exist in isolation or as overlays on actual scenery. In comparison to the eyes and the ears, the skin is a relatively underexplored sensory interface for VR and AR technology that could, nevertheless, greatly enhance experiences at a qualitative level, with direct relevance in areas such as communications, entertainment and medicine1,2. Here we present a wireless, battery-free platform of electronic systems and haptic (that is, touch-based) interfaces capable of softly laminating onto the curved surfaces of the skin to communicate information via spatio-temporally programmable patterns of localized mechanical vibrations. We describe the materials, device structures, power delivery strategies and communication schemes that serve as the foundations for such platforms. The resulting technology creates many opportunities for use where the skin provides an electronically programmable communication and sensory input channel to the body, as demonstrated through applications in social media and personal engagement, prosthetic control and feedback, and gaming and entertainment.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing - original draftRole: Writing - review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: SoftwareRole: VisualizationRole: Writing - original draft
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: SoftwareRole: ValidationRole: Visualization
                Role: Writing - original draftRole: Writing - review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Investigation
                Role: Investigation
                Role: InvestigationRole: ValidationRole: Visualization
                Role: InvestigationRole: ValidationRole: Visualization
                Role: ValidationRole: Visualization
                Role: ValidationRole: Visualization
                Role: ValidationRole: Visualization
                Role: ValidationRole: Visualization
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing - original draftRole: Writing - review & editing
                Journal
                Sci Adv
                Sci Adv
                sciadv
                advances
                Science Advances
                American Association for the Advancement of Science
                2375-2548
                March 2022
                16 March 2022
                : 8
                : 11
                : eabm3785
                Affiliations
                [1 ]AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China.
                [2 ]Center for Flexible Electronics Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China.
                [3 ]National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Composite in Special Environments, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, P. R. China.
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Email: yihuizhang@ 123456tsinghua.edu.cn
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0421-8432
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5718-8919
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1366-0898
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5514-885X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3053-0013
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3658-9887
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6025-6903
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5480-5651
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7536-945X
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3380-3152
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4605-4050
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0885-2067
                Article
                abm3785
                10.1126/sciadv.abm3785
                8926335
                35294232
                8a3c84ad-6275-430f-adc4-5659c5c5c380
                Copyright © 2022 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 14 September 2021
                : 24 January 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 12050004
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 11921002
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 11902178
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 61904095
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002858, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation;
                Award ID: 2019M650648
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004826, Natural Science Foundation of Beijing Municipality;
                Award ID: 3204043
                Funded by: Institute for Guo Qiang Tsinghua University;
                Award ID: 2019GQG1012
                Funded by: Opening Project of the Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University;
                Award ID: K201901
                Categories
                Research Article
                Physical and Materials Sciences
                SciAdv r-articles
                Applied Sciences and Engineering
                Applied Sciences and Engineering
                Custom metadata
                Sef Rio

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