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      Macrophages: master regulators of inflammation and fibrosis.

      1 ,
      Seminars in liver disease
      Georg Thieme Verlag KG

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          Abstract

          Macrophages are found in close proximity with collagen-producing myofibroblasts and indisputably play a key role in fibrosis. They produce profibrotic mediators that directly activate fibroblasts, including transforming growth factor-beta1 and platelet-derived growth factor, and control extracellular matrix turnover by regulating the balance of various matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases. Macrophages also regulate fibrogenesis by secreting chemokines that recruit fibroblasts and other inflammatory cells. With their potential to act in both a pro- and antifibrotic capacity, as well as their ability to regulate the activation of resident and recruited myofibroblasts, macrophages and the factors they express are integrated into all stages of the fibrotic process. These various, and sometimes opposing, functions may be performed by distinct macrophage subpopulations, the identification of which is a growing focus of fibrosis research. Although collagen-secreting myofibroblasts once were thought of as the master "producers" of fibrosis, this review will illustrate how macrophages function as the master "regulators" of fibrosis.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Semin Liver Dis
          Seminars in liver disease
          Georg Thieme Verlag KG
          1098-8971
          0272-8087
          Aug 2010
          : 30
          : 3
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
          Article
          NIHMS225126
          10.1055/s-0030-1255354
          2924662
          20665377
          8a3f2061-bd73-4e89-9795-eb328d58ae1a
          Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.
          History

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