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      Acute Intrahippocampal Injection of Human Interleukin-1β Stimulates the Anterior Pituitary POMC Transcription and Increases Plasma Levels of ACTH and Corticosterone in the Male Rat

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          Abstract

          It has been well documented that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a major mediator for recruiting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following infectious disease. The recent localization of IL-1β receptors in neurons of the hippocampus provides further support for the role of IL-1β as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated whether an acute intrahippocampal injection of IL-1β is able to rapidly stimulate HPA activity. Seven days after bilateral implantation of a guide cannula into the hippocampus, human IL-1β (10 ng/0.5 µl/side) was injected to freely moving male rats. Following this, animals were sacrificed at times 20, 45 and 90 min postinjection and a kinetic analysis of hIL-1β action on plasma ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) concentrations and nuclear processing of the anterior pituitary (AP) proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was conducted. Intrahippocampal administration of hIL-1β significantly increased both plasma ACTH and CORT concentrations at 45 and 90 min postinjection. This increase in ACTH concentration paralleled a rise in AP POMC gene transcription. Moreover, the increase in AP POMC primary transcript was followed by an increase in AP POMC intermediate processing RNA. However, at these times, no significant hIL-1β effect on the level of AP nuclear POMC mRNA was observed. Almost identical results were obtained after intraperitoneal injection of hIL-1β. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that the hippocampal IL-1β/IL-1β receptor is directly and rapidly implicated in HPA activation, in the same manner as that observed after intraperitoneal administration of hIL-1β. These results show that IL-1 action in the hippocampus could be of immunoneuroendocrine significance for the HPA axis activation during inflammatory states.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Bidirectional transport of interleukin-1 alpha across the blood-brain barrier.

          Circulating interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) has multiple effects on the central nervous system. We investigated the ability of radioiodinated IL-1 alpha (rIL-1 alpha) to cross the rodent blood-brain barrier and found its entry rate to be 43.9 times greater than that predicted by leakage alone. The rIL-1 alpha entered multiple regions of the brain, with over 40% entering at the cortex. The hypothalamus had the highest entry rate on a weight basis but only accounted for 2% of total entry. In all experiments, the entry rate of rIL-1 alpha greatly exceeded that of simultaneously injected radiolabeled albumin. The half-time disappearance of rIL-1 alpha from the brain after central injection was 21.9 min, a time that exceeds the reabsorption rate of cerebrospinal fluid. Pretreatment of animals with aluminum decreased both entry and exit rates, which is compatible with a saturable component of transport. Thus, rIL-1 alpha has access to many regions of the brain with bidirectional transport rates across the blood-brain barrier exceeding those predicted by nonspecific mechanisms.
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            Feedback action and tonic influence of corticosteroids on brain function: A concept arising from the heterogeneity of brain receptor systems

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              Systematic interleukin-1 administration stimulates hypothalamic norepinephrine metabolism parallelling the increased plasma corticosterone

               Adrian Dunn (1988)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                1999
                February 1999
                17 February 1999
                : 69
                : 2
                : 77-87
                Affiliations
                aLaboratoire de Neurobiologie cellulaire et moléculaire, EP 1591 CNRS, and bLaboratoire de Pharmacochimie Moléculaire et Structurale, U266 INSERM, URAD 1500 CNRS, Faculté Pharmacie, Paris, France
                Article
                54405 Neuroendocrinology 1999;69:77–87
                10.1159/000054405
                9986920
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 43, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Stress and Corticotropin

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