Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and endothelin (ET) are endogenous vasoactive factors that exert potent diuretic and natriuretic actions. We have previously shown that ANP and ET-3 act through an NO pathway to inhibit the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) in the intestine [Gonzalez Bosc LV, Elustondo PA, Ortiz MC, Vidal NA. Effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on sodium-glucose cotransport in the rat small intestine. Peptides 1997; 18: 1491-5; Gonzalez Bosc LV, Majowicz MP, Ortiz MC, Vidal NA. Effects of endothelin-3 on intestinal ion transport. Peptides 2001; 22: 2069-75.]. Here we address the role of ANP and ET-3 on SGLT activity in renal proximal tubules. In rat renal cortical brush border membranes (BBV), fluorescein isothiocianate (FITC) labeling revealed a specific 72-kD peptide that exhibits increased FITC labeling in the presence of Na+ and D-glucose. Using alpha-14C-methylglucose active uptake, rat BBV were shown to possess SGLT activity with an affinity constant (K(0.5) approximately 2.4 mM) that is consistent with the expression of the low-affinity, high-capacity SGLT2 isoform. SGLT2 activity in these preparations is dramatically inhibited by ANP and ET-3. This inhibition is independent of changes in membrane lipids and is mimicked by the cGMP analogue, 8-Br-cGMP, suggesting the involvement of cGMP/PKG pathways. These results are the first demonstration that both ANP and ET-3 inhibit rat cortical renal SGLT2 activity, and suggest a novel mechanism by which these vasoactive substances modulate hydro-saline balance at the proximal tubular nephron level.