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      Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation Protects Endotoxemic Rat from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

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          Abstract

          Background. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) could evoke parasympathetic activities via activating the brainstem autonomic nuclei, similar to the effects that are produced after vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). VNS modulates immune function through activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Methods. VNS, ta-VNS, or transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on ST36 was performed to modulate the inflammatory response. The concentration of serum proinflammatory cytokines and tissue NF-kappa B p65 (NF- κ B p65) were detected in endotoxaemia affected anesthetized rats. Results. Similar to the effect of VNS, ta-VNS suppressed the serum proinflammatory cytokines levels, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 β ), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as NF-kappa B p65 expressions of lung tissues. ST36 stimulation also decreases LPS-induced high TNF- α level and NF- κ B signal, but it did not restrain proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 β and IL-6. Neither ta-VNS nor ST36 stimulation could suppress LPS-induced TNF- α and NF- κ B after vagotomy or with α 7nAChR antagonist injection. Conclusions. The present paper demonstrated that ta-VNS could be utilized to suppress LPS-induced inflammatory responses via α 7nAChR-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

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          Most cited references 44

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          NF-κB: Ten Years After

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            Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia.

            Bacterial infection of the mammalian bloodstream can lead to overwhelming sepsis, a potentially fatal syndrome of irreversible cardiovascular collapse (shock) and critical organ failure. Cachectin, also known as tumour necrosis factor, is a macrophage-derived peptide hormone released in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and it has been implicated as a principal mediator of endotoxic shock, although its function in bacterial sepsis is not known. Anaesthetized baboons were passively immunized against endogenous cachectin and subsequently infused with an LD100 dose of live Escherichia coli. Control animals (not immunized against cachectin) developed hypotension followed by lethal renal and pulmonary failure. Neutralizing monoclonal anti-cachectin antibody fragments (F(ab')2) administered to baboons only one hour before bacterial challenge protected against shock, but did not prevent critical organ failure. Complete protection against shock, vital organ dysfunction, persistent stress hormone release and death was conferred by administration of antibodies 2 h before bacterial infusion. These results indicate that cachectin is a mediator of fatal bacteraemic shock, and suggest that antibodies against cachectin offer a potential therapy of life-threatening infection.
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              Shock and tissue injury induced by recombinant human cachectin.

              Cachectin (tumor necrosis factor), a protein produced in large quantities by endotoxin-activated macrophages, has been implicated as an important mediator of the lethal effect of endotoxin. Recombinant human cachectin was infused into rats in an effort to determine whether cachectin, by itself, can elicit the derangements of host physiology caused by administration of endotoxin. When administered in quantities similar to those produced endogenously in response to endotoxin, cachectin causes hypotension, metabolic acidosis, hemoconcentration, and death within minutes to hours, as a result of respiratory arrest. Hyperglycemia and hyperkalemia were also observed after infusion. At necropsy, diffuse pulmonary inflammation and hemorrhage were apparent on gross and histopathologic examination, along with ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, and acute renal tubular necrosis. Thus, it appears that a single protein mediator (cachectin) is capable of inducing many of the deleterious effects of endotoxin.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                ECAM
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1741-427X
                1741-4288
                2012
                29 December 2012
                29 December 2012
                : 2012
                Affiliations
                Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie Street, Dongzhimen Nei, Beijing 100700, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ying Xia

                Article
                10.1155/2012/627023
                3544369
                23346208
                8a4ed412-029e-420b-b061-f2ddcbd86d32
                Copyright © 2012 Yu Xue Zhao et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine

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