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      The Degree of the Predischarge Pulmonary Congestion in Patients Hospitalized for Worsening Heart Failure Predicts Readmission and Mortality

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          Background: Prediction of readmission and death after hospitalization for heart failure (HF) is an unmet need. Aim: We evaluated the ability of clinical parameters, NT-proBNP level and noninvasive lung impedance (LI), to predict time to readmission (TTR) and time to death (TTD). Methods and Results: The present study is a post hoc analysis of the IMPEDANCE-HF extended trial comprising 290 patients with LVEF ≤45% and New York Heart Association functional class II–IV, randomized 1:1 to LI-guided or conventional therapy. Of all patients, 206 were admitted 766 times for HF during a follow-up of 57 ± 39 months. The normal LI (NLI), representing the “dry” lung status, was calculated for each patient at study entry. The current degree of pulmonary congestion (PC) compared with its dry status was represented by ΔLIR = ([measured LI/NLI] – 1) × 100%. Twenty-six parameters recorded during HF admission were used to predict TTR and TTD. To determine the parameter which mainly impacted TTR and TTD, variables were standardized, and effect size (ES) was calculated. Multivariate analysis by the Andersen-Gill model demonstrated that ΔLIR<sub>admission</sub> (ES = 0.72), ΔLIR<sub>discharge</sub> (ES = –3.14), group assignment (ES = 0.2), maximal troponin during HF admission (ES = 0.19), LVEF related to admission (ES = –0.22) and arterial hypertension (ES = 0.12) are independent predictors of TTR ( p < 0.01, χ<sup>2</sup> = 1,206). Analysis of ES showed that residual PC assessed by ∆LIR<sub>discharge</sub> was the most prominent predictor of TTR. One percent improvement in predischarge PC, assessed by ∆LIR<sub>discharge</sub>, was associated with a likelihood of TTR increase by 14% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–1.15, p < 0.01) and TTD increase by 8% (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07–1.09, p < 0.01). Conclusion: The degree of predischarge PC assessed by ∆LIR is the most dominant predictor of TTR and TTD.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Wireless pulmonary artery haemodynamic monitoring in chronic heart failure: a randomised controlled trial.

          Results of previous studies support the hypothesis that implantable haemodynamic monitoring systems might reduce rates of hospitalisation in patients with heart failure. We undertook a single-blind trial to assess this approach. Patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III heart failure, irrespective of the left ventricular ejection fraction, and a previous hospital admission for heart failure were enrolled in 64 centres in the USA. They were randomly assigned by use of a centralised electronic system to management with a wireless implantable haemodynamic monitoring (W-IHM) system (treatment group) or to a control group for at least 6 months. Only patients were masked to their assignment group. In the treatment group, clinicians used daily measurement of pulmonary artery pressures in addition to standard of care versus standard of care alone in the control group. The primary efficacy endpoint was the rate of heart-failure-related hospitalisations at 6 months. The safety endpoints assessed at 6 months were freedom from device-related or system-related complications (DSRC) and freedom from pressure-sensor failures. All analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00531661. In 6 months, 83 heart-failure-related hospitalisations were reported in the treatment group (n=270) compared with 120 in the control group (n=280; rate 0·31 vs 0·44, hazard ratio [HR] 0·70, 95% CI 0·60-0·84, p<0·0001). During the entire follow-up (mean 15 months [SD 7]), the treatment group had a 39% reduction in heart-failure-related hospitalisation compared with the control group (153 vs 253, HR 0·64, 95% CI 0·55-0·75; p<0·0001). Eight patients had DSRC and overall freedom from DSRC was 98·6% (97·3-99·4) compared with a prespecified performance criterion of 80% (p<0·0001); and overall freedom from pressure-sensor failures was 100% (99·3-100·0). Our results are consistent with, and extend, previous findings by definitively showing a significant and large reduction in hospitalisation for patients with NYHA class III heart failure who were managed with a wireless implantable haemodynamic monitoring system. The addition of information about pulmonary artery pressure to clinical signs and symptoms allows for improved heart failure management. CardioMEMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Rehospitalizations among patients in the Medicare fee-for-service program.

            Reducing rates of rehospitalization has attracted attention from policymakers as a way to improve quality of care and reduce costs. However, we have limited information on the frequency and patterns of rehospitalization in the United States to aid in planning the necessary changes. We analyzed Medicare claims data from 2003-2004 to describe the patterns of rehospitalization and the relation of rehospitalization to demographic characteristics of the patients and to characteristics of the hospitals. Almost one fifth (19.6%) of the 11,855,702 Medicare beneficiaries who had been discharged from a hospital were rehospitalized within 30 days, and 34.0% were rehospitalized within 90 days; 67.1% [corrected] of patients who had been discharged with medical conditions and 51.5% of those who had been discharged after surgical procedures were rehospitalized or died within the first year after discharge. In the case of 50.2% [corrected] of the patients who were rehospitalized within 30 days after a medical discharge to the community, there was no bill for a visit to a physician's office between the time of discharge and rehospitalization. Among patients who were rehospitalized within 30 days after a surgical discharge, 70.5% were rehospitalized for a medical condition. We estimate that about 10% of rehospitalizations were likely to have been planned. The average stay of rehospitalized patients was 0.6 day longer than that of patients in the same diagnosis-related group whose most recent hospitalization had been at least 6 months previously. We estimate that the cost to Medicare of unplanned rehospitalizations in 2004 was $17.4 billion. Rehospitalizations among Medicare beneficiaries are prevalent and costly. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Relationship between hospital readmission and mortality rates for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia.

              The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services publicly reports hospital 30-day, all-cause, risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) and 30-day, all-cause, risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The evaluation of hospital performance as measured by RSMRs and RSRRs has not been well characterized. To determine the relationship between hospital RSMRs and RSRRs overall and within subgroups defined by hospital characteristics. We studied Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries discharged with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia between July 1, 2005, and June 30, 2008 (4506 hospitals for acute myocardial infarction, 4767 hospitals for heart failure, and 4811 hospitals for pneumonia). We quantified the correlation between hospital RSMRs and RSRRs using weighted linear correlation; evaluated correlations in groups defined by hospital characteristics; and determined the proportion of hospitals with better and worse performance on both measures. Hospital 30-day RSMRs and RSRRs. Mean RSMRs and RSRRs, respectively, were 16.60% and 19.94% for acute myocardial infarction, 11.17% and 24.56% for heart failure, and 11.64% and 18.22% for pneumonia. The correlations between RSMRs and RSRRs were 0.03 (95% CI, -0.002 to 0.06) for acute myocardial infarction, -0.17 (95% CI, -0.20 to -0.14) for heart failure, and 0.002 (95% CI, -0.03 to 0.03) for pneumonia. The results were similar for subgroups defined by hospital characteristics. Although there was a significant negative linear relationship between RSMRs and RSRRs for heart failure, the shared variance between them was only 2.9% (r2 = 0.029), with the correlation most prominent for hospitals with RSMR <11%. Risk-standardized mortality rates and readmission rates were not associated for patients admitted with an acute myocardial infarction or pneumonia and were only weakly associated, within a certain range, for patients admitted with heart failure.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                January 2021
                28 October 2020
                : 146
                : 1
                : 49-59
                aHeart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel
                bThe Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa, Israel
                cUniversity of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                dDepartment of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA
                eThe Permanente Medical Group, San Francisco, California, USA
                fDivision of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California, USA
                gDepartment of Cardiology, University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel
                hDepartment of Medicine (Cardiology), George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
                Author notes
                *Michael Kleiner-Shochat, Heart Institute, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, POB 169, IS–38100 Hadera (Israel), shochat1@gmail.com
                510073 Cardiology 2021;146:49–59
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, Pages: 11
                HF and Intensive Care: Research Article


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