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      Critical role of neutralizing antibody for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and transmission

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          ABSTRACT

          Cases of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reinfection have been reported in a number of countries. Further, the level of natural immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection is not fully clear, nor is it clear if a primary infection is protective against reinfection. To investigate the potential association between serum antibody titres and reinfection of SARS-CoV-2, ferrets with different levels of NAb titres after primary SARS-CoV-2 infection were subjected to reinfection with a heterologous SARS-CoV-2 strain. All heterologous SARS-CoV-2 reinfected ferrets showed active virus replication in the upper respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts. However, the high NAb titre group showed attenuated viral replication and rapid viral clearance. In addition, direct-contact transmission was observed only from reinfected ferrets with low NAb titres (<20), and not from other groups. Further, lung histopathology demonstrated the presence of limited inflammatory regions in the high NAb titre groups compared with control and low NAb groups. This study demonstrates a close correlation between a low NAb titre and SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in a recovered ferret reinfection model.

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          A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

          Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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            The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus : classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2

            The present outbreak of a coronavirus-associated acute respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the third documented spillover of an animal coronavirus to humans in only two decades that has resulted in a major epidemic. The Coronaviridae Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which is responsible for developing the classification of viruses and taxon nomenclature of the family Coronaviridae, has assessed the placement of the human pathogen, tentatively named 2019-nCoV, within the Coronaviridae. Based on phylogeny, taxonomy and established practice, the CSG recognizes this virus as forming a sister clade to the prototype human and bat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) of the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, and designates it as SARS-CoV-2. In order to facilitate communication, the CSG proposes to use the following naming convention for individual isolates: SARS-CoV-2/host/location/isolate/date. While the full spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans remains to be determined, the independent zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need for studying viruses at the species level to complement research focused on individual pathogenic viruses of immediate significance. This will improve our understanding of virus–host interactions in an ever-changing environment and enhance our preparedness for future outbreaks.
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              Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections

              The clinical features and immune responses of asymptomatic individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have not been well described. We studied 37 asymptomatic individuals in the Wanzhou District who were diagnosed with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections but without any relevant clinical symptoms in the preceding 14 d and during hospitalization. Asymptomatic individuals were admitted to the government-designated Wanzhou People's Hospital for centralized isolation in accordance with policy1. The median duration of viral shedding in the asymptomatic group was 19 d (interquartile range (IQR), 15-26 d). The asymptomatic group had a significantly longer duration of viral shedding than the symptomatic group (log-rank P = 0.028). The virus-specific IgG levels in the asymptomatic group (median S/CO, 3.4; IQR, 1.6-10.7) were significantly lower (P = 0.005) relative to the symptomatic group (median S/CO, 20.5; IQR, 5.8-38.2) in the acute phase. Of asymptomatic individuals, 93.3% (28/30) and 81.1% (30/37) had reduction in IgG and neutralizing antibody levels, respectively, during the early convalescent phase, as compared to 96.8% (30/31) and 62.2% (23/37) of symptomatic patients. Forty percent of asymptomatic individuals became seronegative and 12.9% of the symptomatic group became negative for IgG in the early convalescent phase. In addition, asymptomatic individuals exhibited lower levels of 18 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that asymptomatic individuals had a weaker immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The reduction in IgG and neutralizing antibody levels in the early convalescent phase might have implications for immunity strategy and serological surveys.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Emerg Microbes Infect
                Emerg Microbes Infect
                Emerging Microbes & Infections
                Taylor & Francis
                2222-1751
                19 January 2021
                2021
                : 10
                : 1
                : 152-160
                Affiliations
                [a ]College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University , Cheongju, Republic of Korea
                [b ]Zoonotic Infectious Diseases Research Center, Chungbuk National University , Cheongju, Korea
                [c ]Division of Applied Life Science and Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University , Jinju, Korea
                [d ]Research institute of Public Health, National Medical Center , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [e ]Div. of Public Health Research, Sejong Institute of Health & Environment , Sejong City, Republic of Korea
                [f ]Sejong Public Health Center , Sejong City, Republic of Korea
                [g ]Department of Cancer Biology and Center for Global and Emerging Pathogen Research, Lerner Research Institute , Cleveland, OH, USA
                Author notes
                [CONTACT ] Young Ki Choi choiki55@ 123456chungbuk.ac.kr College of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Chungbuk National University , 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju-si28644, Republic of Korea
                [*]

                YlK, SMK, SJP and EHK contributed equally to this article.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0145-7382
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7932-1381
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8915-4799
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1443-3416
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6692-6525
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5203-2125
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8313-4076
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8428-1713
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9316-1652
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6073-0783
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1063-8476
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8232-5666
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4559-8774
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0872-0147
                Article
                1872352
                10.1080/22221751.2021.1872352
                7832474
                33407005
                8aa04263-5857-443e-9a86-b58c2ec482cf
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group, on behalf of Shanghai Shangyixun Cultural Communication Co., Ltd

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Article
                Research Article

                sars-cov-2,reinfection,covid-19,neutralizing antibody,ferret model

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