Leslie Kirby 1 , Jing Jin 1 , Jaime Gonzalez Cardona 1 , Matthew D. Smith 1 , Kyle A. Martin 1 , Jingya Wang 2 , Hayley Strasburger 1 , Leyla Herbst 1 , Maya Alexis 1 , Jodi Karnell 2 , Todd Davidson 2 , Ranjan Dutta 3 , Joan Goverman 4 , Dwight Bergles 5 , Peter A. Calabresi , 1 , 5
29 August 2019
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are abundant in the adult central nervous system, and have the capacity to regenerate oligodendrocytes and myelin. However, in inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) remyelination is often incomplete. To investigate how neuroinflammation influences OPCs, we perform in vivo fate-tracing in an inflammatory demyelinating mouse model. Here we report that OPC differentiation is inhibited by both effector T cells and IFNγ overexpression by astrocytes. IFNγ also reduces the absolute number of OPCs and alters remaining OPCs by inducing the immunoproteasome and MHC class I. In vitro, OPCs exposed to IFNγ cross-present antigen to cytotoxic CD8 T cells, resulting in OPC death. In human demyelinated MS brain lesions, but not normal appearing white matter, oligodendroglia exhibit enhanced expression of the immunoproteasome subunit PSMB8. Therefore, OPCs may be co-opted by the immune system in MS to perpetuate the autoimmune response, suggesting that inhibiting immune activation of OPCs may facilitate remyelination.
In multiple sclerosis (MS), antigen-presenting cells inducing cytotoxic T cell response against mature oligodendrocytes remain to be identified. Here the authors show that oligodendrocyte precursors cross-present antigen taken up from mature oligodendrocytes, and are targeted by cytotoxic T cells in cell culture and in an animal model of MS.