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      Ocular surface squamous neoplasia: angiographic characteristics and response to subconjunctival/perilesional 5-fluorouracil injections

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          Abstract

          Introduction: To investigate the angiographic characteristics of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and to evaluate the efficacy of subconjunctival/perilesional 5-fluorouracil injections in OSSN cases.

          Materials and methods: Six eyes of six patients with primary OSSN, received perilesional, subconjunctival, 25-mg/mL 5-fluorouracil injections at certain intervals. Anterior segment digital photography images, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and conjunctival indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) were obtained simultaneously with fluorescein angiography.

          Results: The mean best-corrected vision acuity significantly improved after treatment. At baseline, the median of the largest thickness of OSSN was 905.0 (interquartile range: 492.0–1592.5) μm based on AS-OCT data. There was an abrupt transition between normal and abnormal epithelium, a thickened hyper-reflective epithelium, and a sharp plane of cleavage between the lesion and underlying tissue, all indicative of OSSN. The angiographic characteristics of OSSN included focal or seafan-shaped intratumoral and conjunctival feeding vessels visible via ICGA, and abnormal vascular leakage visible with fluorescein angiography. The median time to tumor regression after treatment was 35.0 (interquartile range: 32.0–45.5) days in five eyes without recurrence, and OSSN in one eye regressed partially 40 days after treatment.

          Conclusion: This is the first report of the angiographic characteristics of OSSN and its response to subconjunctival/perilesional 5-fluorouracil injections by simultaneous conjunctival angiography and AS-OCT. The improved subconjunctival/perilesional 5-fluorouracil injection was an effective therapy for OSSN in both best-corrected vision acuity gain and anatomic outcomes.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Epidemiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia in Africa

          Objectives To describe the epidemiology and an aetiological model of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) in Africa. Methods Systematic and non-systematic review methods were used. Incidence was obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the reference lists of articles retrieved. Meta-analyses were conducted using a fixed-effects model for HIV and cigarette smoking and random effects for human papilloma virus (HPV). Results The incidence of OSSN is highest in the Southern Hemisphere (16° South), with the highest age-standardised rate (ASR) reported from Zimbabwe (3.4 and 3.0 cases/year/100 000 population for males and females, respectively). The mean ASR worldwide is 0.18 and 0.08 cases/year/100 000 among males and females, respectively. The risk increases with exposure to direct daylight (2–4 h, OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–2.4 and ≥5 h OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1) and outdoor occupations (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.6). Meta-analysis also shows a strong association with HIV (6 studies: OR = 6.17, 95% CI: 4.83–7.89) and HPV (7 studies: OR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.27–5.49) but not cigarette smoking (2 studies: OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.94–2.09). The effect of atopy, xeroderma pigmentosa and vitamin A deficiency is unclear. Conclusions Africa has the highest incidence of OSSN in the world, where males and females are equally affected, unlike other continents where male disease predominates. African women probably have increased risk due to their higher prevalence of HIV and HPV infections. As the survival of HIV-infected people increases, and given no evidence that anti-retroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of OSSN, the incidence of OSSN may increase in coming years.
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            Conjunctival and corneal intraepithelial and invasive neoplasia.

            The histopathologic findings and clinical records of 98 patients with conjunctival and corneal intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 22 patients with invasive neoplasia were studied. Pathologic material was evaluated for cell type, degree of dysplasia, margins of excision, and change in pattern with recurrence. Clinical records were reviewed for demographic features, presenting symptoms, clinical appearance, therapy, and subsequent course. Recurrences occurred in 23 patients with CIN and 9 patients with invasive neoplasia. Intraocular or orbital extensions or both occurred in four patients and metastatic disease in two patients. The cell type, clinical appearance, and degree of dysplasia did not correlate with recurrence; involvement of the margins of the initial excision was an important prognostic sign for recurrence.
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              Ocular surface squamous neoplasia

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                29 April 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 1323-1334
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University , Shenyang, Liaoning 110001, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Rui HuaDepartment of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University , No. 155 Nanjingbei Street, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning110001, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +861 384 058 3355Fax +86 248 328 2630Email woodshua@ 123456126.com
                Article
                191161
                10.2147/DDDT.S191161
                6503196
                © 2019 Sun and Hua.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 23, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Research

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