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      Aberrant Dynamic Functional Connectivity of Posterior Cingulate Cortex Subregions in Major Depressive Disorder With Suicidal Ideation


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          Accumulating evidence indicates the presence of structural and functional abnormalities of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with suicidal ideation (SI). Nevertheless, the subregional-level dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of the PCC has not been investigated in MDD with SI. We therefore sought to investigate the presence of aberrant dFC variability in PCC subregions in MDD patients with SI. We analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 31 unmedicated MDD patients with SI (SI group), 56 unmedicated MDD patients without SI (NSI group), and 48 matched healthy control (HC) subjects. The sliding-window method was applied to characterize the whole-brain dFC of each PCC subregion [the ventral PCC (vPCC) and dorsal PCC (dPCC)]. In addition, we evaluated associations between clinical variables and the aberrant dFC variability of those brain regions showing significant between-group differences. Compared with HCS, the SI and the NSI groups exhibited higher dFC variability between the left dPCC and left fusiform gyrus and between the right vPCC and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The SI group showed higher dFC variability between the left vPCC and left IFG than the NSI group. Furthermore, the dFC variability between the left vPCC and left IFG was positively correlated with Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) score in patients with MDD (i.e., the SI and NSI groups). Our results indicate that aberrant dFC variability between the vPCC and IFG might provide a neural-network explanation for SI and may provide a potential target for future therapeutic interventions in MDD patients with SI.

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          The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease.

          Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network-a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cognition. Here we synthesize past observations to provide strong evidence that the default network is a specific, anatomically defined brain system preferentially active when individuals are not focused on the external environment. Analysis of connectional anatomy in the monkey supports the presence of an interconnected brain system. Providing insight into function, the default network is active when individuals are engaged in internally focused tasks including autobiographical memory retrieval, envisioning the future, and conceiving the perspectives of others. Probing the functional anatomy of the network in detail reveals that it is best understood as multiple interacting subsystems. The medial temporal lobe subsystem provides information from prior experiences in the form of memories and associations that are the building blocks of mental simulation. The medial prefrontal subsystem facilitates the flexible use of this information during the construction of self-relevant mental simulations. These two subsystems converge on important nodes of integration including the posterior cingulate cortex. The implications of these functional and anatomical observations are discussed in relation to possible adaptive roles of the default network for using past experiences to plan for the future, navigate social interactions, and maximize the utility of moments when we are not otherwise engaged by the external world. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the default network for understanding mental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease.
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            We review evidence for partially segregated networks of brain areas that carry out different attentional functions. One system, which includes parts of the intraparietal cortex and superior frontal cortex, is involved in preparing and applying goal-directed (top-down) selection for stimuli and responses. This system is also modulated by the detection of stimuli. The other system, which includes the temporoparietal cortex and inferior frontal cortex, and is largely lateralized to the right hemisphere, is not involved in top-down selection. Instead, this system is specialized for the detection of behaviourally relevant stimuli, particularly when they are salient or unexpected. This ventral frontoparietal network works as a 'circuit breaker' for the dorsal system, directing attention to salient events. Both attentional systems interact during normal vision, and both are disrupted in unilateral spatial neglect.
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              Linear registration and motion correction are important components of structural and functional brain image analysis. Most modern methods optimize some intensity-based cost function to determine the best registration. To date, little attention has been focused on the optimization method itself, even though the success of most registration methods hinges on the quality of this optimization. This paper examines the optimization process in detail and demonstrates that the commonly used multiresolution local optimization methods can, and do, get trapped in local minima. To address this problem, two approaches are taken: (1) to apodize the cost function and (2) to employ a novel hybrid global-local optimization method. This new optimization method is specifically designed for registering whole brain images. It substantially reduces the likelihood of producing misregistrations due to being trapped by local minima. The increased robustness of the method, compared to other commonly used methods, is demonstrated by a consistency test. In addition, the accuracy of the registration is demonstrated by a series of experiments with motion correction. These motion correction experiments also investigate how the results are affected by different cost functions and interpolation methods.

                Author and article information

                Front Neurosci
                Front Neurosci
                Front. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                19 July 2022
                : 16
                [1] 1The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University , Guangzhou, China
                [2] 2The First School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University , Guangzhou, China
                [3] 3Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center for Translational Medicine of Mental Disorders , Guangzhou, China
                [4] 4School of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, South China University of Technology , Guangzhou, China
                [5] 5Guangdong Institute of Medical Instruments , Guangzhou, China
                [6] 6Institute of Biological and Medical Engineering, Guangdong Academy of Sciences , Guangzhou, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Zaixu Cui, Chinese Institute for Brain Research (CIBR), China

                Reviewed by: Xia Liang, Harbin Institute of Technology, China; Shaoling Peng, Beijing Normal University, China

                *Correspondence: Yanling Zhou, zhouylivy@ 123456aliyun.com

                This article was submitted to Brain Imaging Methods, a section of the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience

                Copyright © 2022 Li, Wang, Lan, Fu, Zhang, Ye, Liu, Wu, Lao, Chen, Li, Zhou and Ning.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 67, Pages: 10, Words: 7567
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, doi 10.13039/501100001809;
                Original Research

                major depressive disorder,posterior cingulate cortex,magnetic resonance imaging,suicidal ideation,dynamic functional connectivity (dfc)


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