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      Dendritic Cells in Cord Blood Transplantation: A Review

      1, 2,*

      Stem Cells International

      SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research

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          Abstract

          Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells derived from hematopoietic progenitors that bridge the transition between the innate and adaptive immune responses, while maintaining self-tolerance and Th1/Th2 homeostasis, by priming other cells in either an immunogenic or tolerogenic direction. Through their role in both innate and adaptive immunity, DCs play a major part in transplant engraftment and rejection and in graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Preferentially tolerogenic or immunogenic DC subtypes offer targets for immunotherapy, to optimize transplant success rates and prolong disease-free and overall survival. Cord blood DCs are immature and preferentially tolerogenic, due to maternal-fetal tolerance, leading to better graft acceptance and immune reconstitution and explaining the lower incidence and severity of GvHD in CB transplantation, despite donor-host mismatching. Manipulation of DC maturation and cell loading with tumor-antigens can direct antitumor immunity and target minimal residual disease, as demonstrated for acute myeloid leukemia, optimizing the graft-versus-leukemia effect.

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          Most cited references 91

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          BDCA-2, BDCA-3, and BDCA-4: three markers for distinct subsets of dendritic cells in human peripheral blood.

          We have generated a panel of mAbs that identify three presumably novel human dendritic cell Ags: BDCA-2, BDCA-3, and BDCA-4. In blood, BDCA-2 and BDCA-4 are expressed on CD11c(-) CD123(bright) plasmacytoid dendritic cells, whereas BDCA-3 is expressed on small population of CD11c(+) CD123(-) dendritic cells. All three Ags are not detectable on a third blood dendritic cell population, which is CD1c(+) CD11c(bright) CD123(dim), or on any other cells in blood. BDCA-4 is also expressed on monocyte-derived and CD34(+) cell-derived dendritic cells. Expression of all three Ags dramatically changes once blood dendritic cells undergo in vitro maturation. BDCA-2 is completely down-regulated on plasmacytoid CD11c(-) CD123(bright) dendritic cells, expression of BDCA-3 is up-regulated on both plasmacytoid CD11c(-) CD123(bright) dendritic cells and CD1c(+) CD11c(bright) CD123(dim) dendritic cells, and expression of BDCA-4 is up-regulated on CD1c(+) CD11c(bright) CD123(dim) dendritic cells. BDCA-2 is rapidly internalized at 37 degrees C after mAb labeling. The three presumably novel Ags serve as specific markers for the respective subpopulations of blood dendritic cells in fresh blood and will be of great value for their further analysis and to evaluate their therapeutic potential.
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            Neonatal adaptive immunity comes of age.

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              Immature, semi-mature and fully mature dendritic cells: which signals induce tolerance or immunity?

              Dendritic cells (DCs) are currently divided into tolerogenic immature and immunogenic mature differentiation stages. However, recent findings challenge this model by reporting mature DCs as inducers of regulatory CD4+ T cells in vivo. This implies that decisive tolerogenic and immunogenic maturation signals for DCs might exist. Closer inspection reveals that tolerance is observed when partial- or semi-maturation of DCs occurs, whereas only full DC maturation is immunogenic. The decisive immunogenic signal seems to be the release of proinflammatory cytokines from the DCs. Moreover, the semi-mature DC phenotype is comparable to steady-state migratory veiled DCs within the lymphatics, which seem to continuously tolerize lymph node T cells against tissue-derived self-antigens or apoptotic cells.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Clinical Hematology Department, Coimbra University Hospitals, Coimbra, Portugal
                2Histocompatibility Center of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Tsunehiko Komatsu

                Journal
                Stem Cells Int
                SCI
                Stem Cells International
                SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
                1687-9678
                2011
                16 June 2011
                : 2011
                3137980
                21776281
                10.4061/2011/539896
                Copyright © 2011 M. I. Pereira and A. Paiva.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine

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