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      Logical validation and evaluation of practical feasibility for the SCRuM (School Clinical Rugby Measure) test battery developed for young adolescent rugby players in a resource-constrained environment

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          Abstract

          There is a growing impetus towards usage of test batteries in talent identification (TID) programmes in rugby. Consequently, there are many test batteries in existence profiling anthropometric, physiological characteristics and rugby-specific skills. There is no consensus in the literature on the constituent variables and corresponding tests required to inform TID programs. Following development of a new test battery called the SCRuM (School Clinical Rugby Measure), this study aimed at establishing face, logical validity and practical feasibility of included tests. The test battery, initially comprised of 23 items, had its face and logical validity evaluated by five (5) adolescent rugby coaches and 20 rugby experts, respectively. Logical validation was conducted in two questionnaire-based rounds with Content Validity Index (I-CVI) calculated for each variable. Subsequently, a cross-sectional study targeting 30 local rugby coaches was conducted to determine the perceived practical feasibility of each test item. The results showed excellent I-CVI (>0.78) for 17 variables (speed, weight, height and skin fold measures, repeated high-intensity exercise performance ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, change of direction speed, anaerobic capacity, lower-and upper body muscular power and strength, muscular flexibility, reactive agility, passing for accuracy, tackling proficiency, and catching). However, three tests, namely, Reactive Agility, One Repetition Maximum Back Squat and One Repetition Maximum Bench Press had low test-feasibility indices (T-FI< 35) suggesting practicality concerns with implementation in the Zimbabwean context. Thus, these findings suggest the need for substitution or development of new practically feasible tests for upper-and lower body muscular strength and reactive agility.

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          Principles and methods of validity and reliability testing of questionnaires used in social and health science researches.

          The importance of measuring the accuracy and consistency of research instruments (especially questionnaires) known as validity and reliability, respectively, have been documented in several studies, but their measure is not commonly carried out among health and social science researchers in developing countries. This has been linked to the dearth of knowledge of these tests. This is a review article which comprehensively explores and describes the validity and reliability of a research instrument (with special reference to questionnaire). It further discusses various forms of validity and reliability tests with concise examples and finally explains various methods of analysing these tests with scientific principles guiding such analysis.
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            Positional demands of international rugby union: evaluation of player actions and movements.

            In rugby union, published analyses of actions and movements of players during matches have been limited to small samples of games at regional or national level. To analyse movements and activities of players in international rugby union matches with a sample size sufficient to clearly delineate positional roles. Observational study. Actions of 763 players were coded from video recordings of 90 international matches played by the New Zealand national team (the All Blacks) from 2004 to 2010. Movements of players were coded for 27 of these matches via a semi-automated player-tracking system. Movements and activities of all players from both teams were coded. Cluster analysis of activities and time-motion variables produced five subgroups of forwards (props, hookers, locks, flankers, Number 8 forwards) and five subgroups of backs (scrum-half, fly-half, midfield backs, wings and fullbacks). Forwards sustained much higher contact loads per match than backs, via scrums, rucks, tackles and mauls. Mean distance covered per match ranged from 5400 to 6300m, with backs generally running further than forwards. There were marked differences between positional groups in the amount of distance covered at various speeds. The amount of play per match varies by position due to differences in rates at which players are substituted. The distance covered by players at relatively fast running speeds (in excess of 5ms(-1)) appears to be higher during international matches than when competing at lower levels of the professional game. The specific match demands for positional groups need to be considered when managing player workloads. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              The physical demands of Super 14 rugby union.

              The purpose of the present study was to describe the match-play demands of professional rugby union players competing in Super 14 matches during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. The movements of 20 players from Super 14 rugby union team during the 2008 and 2009 seasons were video recorded. Using time-motion analysis (TMA), five players from four positional groups (front-row forwards, back-row forwards, inside backs and outside backs) were assessed. Players covered between 4218 m and 6389 m during the games. The maximum distances covered in a game by the four groups were: front row forwards (5139 m), back row forwards, (5422 m), inside backs (6389 m) and outside backs (5489 m). The back row forwards spent the greatest amount of time in high-intensity exercise (1190 s), followed by the front row forwards (1015 s), the inside backs (876 s) and the outside backs (570 s). Average distances covered in individual sprint efforts were: front row forwards (16 m), back row forwards (14 m), inside backs (17 m) and outside backs (18 m). Work to rest ratios of 1:4, 1:4, 1:5, and 1:6 were found for the front row and back row forwards, and inside and outside backs respectively. The Super 14 competition during 2008 and 2009, have resulted in an increase in total high-intensity activities, sprint frequency, and work to rest ratios across all playing positions. For players and teams to remain competitive in Super 14 rugby, training (including recovery practices) should reflect these current demands. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                20 November 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
                [2 ] Rehabilitation Department, University of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe
                [3 ] Department of Rehabilitation, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
                University of Essex, UNITED KINGDOM
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-18-20395
                10.1371/journal.pone.0207307
                6245748
                30458016
                © 2018 Chiwaridzo et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Pages: 20
                Product
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work. However, part of the PhD work by the lead investigator was partially supported by the University of Zimbabwe.
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                All relevant data are available from the Dryad Digital Repository on ( https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.kb8203f).

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