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      Biology of the prolactin family in bovine placenta. I. Bovine placental lactogen: Expression, structure and proposed roles

      Animal Science Journal

      Wiley

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          Interferon-like sequence of ovine trophoblast protein secreted by embryonic trophectoderm.

          In most species the length of a pregnancy exceeds that of the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle. The conceptus within the uterus, therefore, is believed to produce a substance or substances which directly or indirectly prolong the lifespan of the corpus luteum and prevent a return to ovarian cyclicity. This phenomenon is known as maternal recognition of pregnancy. The active substance implicated in signalling maternal recognition of pregnancy in the sheep is an embryonic secretory protein, known as ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1) (refs 2-4), which is targeted in a paracrine manner to the uterine epithelium of the mother. We report here the primary amino-acid sequence of oTP-1 as inferred from a cloned complementary DNA and demonstrate that the protein is most probably an interferon-alpha.
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            Roles of prolactin and related members of the prolactin/growth hormone/placental lactogen family in angiogenesis.

            Prolactin, growth hormone and placental lactogen are members of a family of polypeptide hormones which share structural similarities and biological activities. Numerous functions have been attributed to these hormones, among which stand out their recently discovered effects on angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing microvasculature. Prolactin, growth hormone and placental lactogen, along with two non-classical members of the family, proliferin and proliferin-related protein, can act both as circulating hormones and as paracrine/autocrine factors to either stimulate or inhibit various stages of the formation and remodeling of new blood vessels, including endothelial cell proliferation, migration, protease production and apoptosis. Such opposing actions can reside in similar but independent molecules, as is the case of proliferin and proliferin-related protein, which stimulate and inhibit angiogenesis respectively. The potential to exert opposing effects on angiogenesis can also reside within the same molecule as the parent protein can promote angiogenesis (i.e. prolactin, growth hormone and placental lactogen), but after proteolytic processing the resulting peptide fragment acquires anti-angiogenic properties (i.e. 16 kDa prolactin, 16 kDa growth hormone and 16 kDa placental lactogen). The unique properties of the peptide fragments versus the full-length molecules, the regulation of the protease responsible for specific protein cleavage, the selective expression of specific receptors and their associated signal transduction pathways are issues that are being investigated to further establish the precise contribution of these hormones to angiogenesis under both physiological and pathological situations. In this review article, we summarize the known and speculative issues underlying the effects of the prolactin, growth hormone and placental lactogen family of proteins on angiogenesis, and address important remaining enigmas in this field of research.
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              The establishment of an ELISA for the detection of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) in the serum of pregnant cows and heifers.

              The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are a large gene family expressed in trophoblast cells of ruminant ungulates. The detection of PAGs (more specifically, PAG-1) in maternal serum has served as the basis for pregnancy detection in cattle. Unfortunately, PAG-1 and/or antigenically-related PAGs exhibit a long half-life in maternal serum (>8 d) and can be detected 80-100 d post-partum, thereby producing false positives in animals bred within 60-d of calving. The goal of the present studies was to develop a monoclonal-based assay that targeted early-pregnancy PAGs whose persistence in maternal serum post-partum might be relatively short-lived. Three anti-PAG monoclonal antibodies that recognized distinct subsets of PAGs were selected and used as trapping reagents in a 'sandwich' type of enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). A polyclonal antiserum with broad specificity was used for detecting bound PAGs. A total of 42 cows and heifers were bled daily on day 15, days 22 to 28, and then weekly throughout pregnancy and for 10 weeks (approximately 70 d) into the post-partum period. The ELISA was able to detect PAG in maternal serum of all animals unambiguously by day 28 post-insemination (PAG concentration: 8.75 +/- 3.04 ng/mL). In maternal serum, PAG concentrations peaked during the week of parturition at 588.9 +/- 249.9 ng/mL, and after calving, PAG was completely cleared (half-life: 4.3 d) by eight-week post-partum in 38 of 40 of the animals tested and was at very low concentrations in the remaining two (1.4 and 4.9 ng/mL, respectively). In summary, a monoclonal-based assay has been established that is sensitive enough to detect PAG in maternal serum by the forth week of pregnancy, but does not suffer from carry-over of antigen from a previous pregnancy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Animal Science Journal
                Animal Sci J
                Wiley
                1344-3941
                1740-0929
                February 2006
                February 2006
                : 77
                : 1
                : 10-17
                Article
                10.1111/j.1740-0929.2006.00314.x
                8ac136bb-3b1e-40d8-98c3-26afc3074bf8
                © 2006

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