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      Non-Inferior Efficacy of Tenofovir Disoproxil to Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Virologically Suppressed Chronic Hepatitis B Patients


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          Tenofovir disoproxil (TD), modified from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), was developed as a salt-free formulation, removing fumarate to improve the ease of oral intake by reducing the tablet’s size. We evaluated the maintenance of antiviral effects and overall safety profile of TD 245 mg after switching from TDF 300 mg in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

          Patients and Methods

          CHB patients with HBV-DNA <69 IU/mL after ≥24 weeks of TDF therapy were enrolled. The primary efficacy endpoint was the HBV-DNA suppression rate (HBV-DNA <69 IU/mL) at week 48; We evaluated the non-inferiority (10% margin) of TD to TDF in terms of efficacy. Safety was assessed based on adverse events (AEs), laboratory tests, bone mineral density, and renal function abnormalities.


          Overall, 189 subjects were randomized in a 2:1 ratio, and 117 and 66 subjects in the TD and TDF groups, respectively, completed the study. In the per-protocol set, the HBV-DNA suppression rate at week 48 was 99.1% and 100% in the TD and TDF groups, respectively. The lower limit of the 97.5% one-sided confidence interval for the intergroup difference in HBV-DNA suppression rate was −2.8%, which was greater than the prespecified margin of non-inferiority. The changes in creatinine clearance from baseline to week 48 was significantly less in the TD group and in the TDF group; −0.8 ± 9.8 versus −2.4 ± 12.8 mL/min, respectively ( P=0.017).


          TD was non-inferior to TDF for maintaining viral suppression in CHB patients, showing the less decline of renal function.

          Most cited references24

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          Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

          Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex. We attempted to identify all available data on causes of death for 187 countries from 1980 to 2010 from vital registration, verbal autopsy, mortality surveillance, censuses, surveys, hospitals, police records, and mortuaries. We assessed data quality for completeness, diagnostic accuracy, missing data, stochastic variations, and probable causes of death. We applied six different modelling strategies to estimate cause-specific mortality trends depending on the strength of the data. For 133 causes and three special aggregates we used the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) approach, which uses four families of statistical models testing a large set of different models using different permutations of covariates. Model ensembles were developed from these component models. We assessed model performance with rigorous out-of-sample testing of prediction error and the validity of 95% UIs. For 13 causes with low observed numbers of deaths, we developed negative binomial models with plausible covariates. For 27 causes for which death is rare, we modelled the higher level cause in the cause hierarchy of the GBD 2010 and then allocated deaths across component causes proportionately, estimated from all available data in the database. For selected causes (African trypanosomiasis, congenital syphilis, whooping cough, measles, typhoid and parathyroid, leishmaniasis, acute hepatitis E, and HIV/AIDS), we used natural history models based on information on incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality. We separately estimated cause fractions by aetiology for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and meningitis, as well as disaggregations by subcause for chronic kidney disease, maternal disorders, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. For deaths due to collective violence and natural disasters, we used mortality shock regressions. For every cause, we estimated 95% UIs that captured both parameter estimation uncertainty and uncertainty due to model specification where CODEm was used. We constrained cause-specific fractions within every age-sex group to sum to total mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions. In 2010, there were 52·8 million deaths globally. At the most aggregate level, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes were 24·9% of deaths worldwide in 2010, down from 15·9 million (34·1%) of 46·5 million in 1990. This decrease was largely due to decreases in mortality from diarrhoeal disease (from 2·5 to 1·4 million), lower respiratory infections (from 3·4 to 2·8 million), neonatal disorders (from 3·1 to 2·2 million), measles (from 0·63 to 0·13 million), and tetanus (from 0·27 to 0·06 million). Deaths from HIV/AIDS increased from 0·30 million in 1990 to 1·5 million in 2010, reaching a peak of 1·7 million in 2006. Malaria mortality also rose by an estimated 19·9% since 1990 to 1·17 million deaths in 2010. Tuberculosis killed 1·2 million people in 2010. Deaths from non-communicable diseases rose by just under 8 million between 1990 and 2010, accounting for two of every three deaths (34·5 million) worldwide by 2010. 8 million people died from cancer in 2010, 38% more than two decades ago; of these, 1·5 million (19%) were from trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer. Ischaemic heart disease and stroke collectively killed 12·9 million people in 2010, or one in four deaths worldwide, compared with one in five in 1990; 1·3 million deaths were due to diabetes, twice as many as in 1990. The fraction of global deaths due to injuries (5·1 million deaths) was marginally higher in 2010 (9·6%) compared with two decades earlier (8·8%). This was driven by a 46% rise in deaths worldwide due to road traffic accidents (1·3 million in 2010) and a rise in deaths from falls. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lower respiratory infections, lung cancer, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of death in 2010. Ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, stroke, diarrhoeal disease, malaria, and HIV/AIDS were the leading causes of years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) in 2010, similar to what was estimated for 1990, except for HIV/AIDS and preterm birth complications. YLLs from lower respiratory infections and diarrhoea decreased by 45-54% since 1990; ischaemic heart disease and stroke YLLs increased by 17-28%. Regional variations in leading causes of death were substantial. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes still accounted for 76% of premature mortality in sub-Saharan Africa in 2010. Age standardised death rates from some key disorders rose (HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease in particular), but for most diseases, death rates fell in the past two decades; including major vascular diseases, COPD, most forms of cancer, liver cirrhosis, and maternal disorders. For other conditions, notably malaria, prostate cancer, and injuries, little change was noted. Population growth, increased average age of the world's population, and largely decreasing age-specific, sex-specific, and cause-specific death rates combine to drive a broad shift from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes towards non-communicable diseases. Nevertheless, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes remain the dominant causes of YLLs in sub-Saharan Africa. Overlaid on this general pattern of the epidemiological transition, marked regional variation exists in many causes, such as interpersonal violence, suicide, liver cancer, diabetes, cirrhosis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, melanoma, and others. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of sound epidemiological assessments of the causes of death on a regular basis. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            AASLD guidelines for treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

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              Three-year efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate treatment for chronic hepatitis B.

              Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), a nucleotide analogue and potent inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase, showed superior efficacy to adefovir dipivoxil in treatment of chronic hepatitis B through 48 weeks. We evaluated long-term efficacy and safety of TDF monotherapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B who were positive or negative for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg(+) or HBeAg(-)). After 48 weeks of double-blind comparison of TDF to adefovir dipivoxil, patients who underwent liver biopsy were eligible to continue the study on open-label TDF for 7 additional years; data presented were collected up to 3 years (week 144) from 85% of participants. Primary efficacy end points at week 144 included levels of HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase, development of resistance mutations, and presence of HBeAg or hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). At week 144, 87% of HBeAg(-) and 72% of HBeAg(+) patients treated with TDF had levels of HBV DNA <400 copies/mL. Among patients who had previously received adefovir dipivoxil and then received TDF, 88% of the HBeAg(-) and 71% of the HBeAg(+) patients had levels of HBV DNA <400 copies/mL; overall, 81% and 74%, respectively, maintained normalized levels of alanine aminotransferase and 34% had lost HBeAg. Amino acid substitutions in HBV DNA polymerase that are associated with resistance to tenofovir were not detected in any patient. Cumulatively, 8% of HBeAg(+) patients lost HBsAg. TDF maintained a favorable safety profile for up to 3 years. TDF was safe and effective in the long-term management of HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(-) patients with chronic hepatitis B. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                23 September 2022
                : 16
                : 3263-3274
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine , Seoul, Korea
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine , Seoul, Korea
                [3 ]Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine , Seoul, Korea
                [4 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University, School of Medicine , Daegu, Korea
                [5 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine , Jinju, Korea
                [6 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine , Daegu, Korea
                [7 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Daegu Catholic University School of Medicine , Daegu, Korea
                [8 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, College of Medicine, Dongguk University , Goyang, Korea
                [9 ]Department of Gastroenterology, DongA University College of Medicine , Busan, Korea
                [10 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam, Korea and Hepatology Center, Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital , Seongnam, Korea
                [11 ]Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine , Seoul, Korea
                [12 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, and Yonsei Liver Center, Severance Hospital , Seoul, Korea
                [13 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University College of Medicine , Daegu, Korea
                [14 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine , Ulsan, Korea
                [15 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine , Goyang, Korea
                [16 ]Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University , Seongnam, Korea
                [17 ]Department of Medicine, GangNeung Asan Hospital, Ulsan University College of Medicine , Gangwon-do, Korea
                [18 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital , Cheongju, Korea
                [19 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, and Hanyang University Guri Hospital , Guri, Korea
                [20 ]Department of Gastroenterology, Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine , Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Young-Suk Lim, Department of Gastroenterology, Liver Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine , 43-Gil 88, Olympic-Ro, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, Korea, Tel +82-2-3010-3190, Fax +82-2-485-5782, Email limys@amc.seoul.kr

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Author information
                © 2022 Yim et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                : 16 June 2022
                : 16 September 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, References: 28, Pages: 12
                Funded by: Daewoong Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd;
                This research received funding from Daewoong Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd.
                Clinical Trial Report

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                viral dna,bone density,antiviral agents,viral suppression


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