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      Sex-Specific Associations of Gestational Glucose Tolerance With Childhood Body Composition

      , PHD, MPH, , MD, SM, , MPH, , MD, MPH, , MD, MPH

      Diabetes Care

      American Diabetes Association

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          To examine the associations of maternal gestational glucose tolerance with offspring body composition in late childhood.


          Among 958 women in the prebirth cohort Project Viva, glucose tolerance was assessed in the second trimester by nonfasting 50-g 1-h glucose challenge test (GCT), followed if abnormal by fasting 100-g 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). We categorized women as normoglycemic (83.3%) if GCT was ≤140 mg/dL, isolated hyperglycemia (9.1%) if GCT was abnormal but OGTT normal, intermediate glucose intolerance (IGI) (3.3%) if there was one abnormal value on OGTT, or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (4.5%) if there were two or more abnormal OGTT values. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined adjusted associations of glucose tolerance with offspring overall ( N = 958) and central ( N = 760) adiposity and body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured at the school-age visit (95 ± 10 months).


          Compared with that in the male offspring of normoglycemic mothers, DXA fat mass was higher in male offspring of GDM mothers (1.89 kg [95% CI 0.33–3.45]) but not in male offspring of mothers with IGI (0.06 kg [−1.45 to 1.57]). DXA trunk-to-peripheral fat mass, a measure of central adiposity, was also somewhat higher in male offspring of GDM mothers (0.04 [−0.01 to 0.09]). In girls, DXA fat mass was higher in offspring of mothers with IGI (2.23 kg [0.12–4.34]) but not GDM (−1.25 kg [−3.13 to 0.63]). We showed no association of gestational glucose tolerance with DXA lean mass.


          In this study, only male offspring of GDM mothers manifested increased adiposity, whereas only female offspring of mothers with IGI did so. Sex differences in glycemic sensitivity may explain these findings.

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          Most cited references 29

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          2000 CDC Growth Charts for the United States: methods and development.

          This report provides detailed information on how the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts for the United States were developed, expanding upon the report that accompanied the initial release of the charts in 2000. The growth charts were developed with data from five national health examination surveys and limited supplemental data. Smoothed percentile curves were developed in two stages. In the first stage, selected empirical percentiles were smoothed with a variety of parametric and nonparametric procedures. In the second stage, parameters were created to obtain the final curves, additional percentiles and z-scores. The revised charts were evaluated using statistical and graphical measures. The 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth charts were revised for infants (birth to 36 months) and older children (2 to 20 years). New body mass index-for-age (BMI-for-age) charts were created. Use of national data improved the transition from the infant charts to those for older children. The evaluation of the charts found no large or systematic differences between the smoothed percentiles and the empirical data. The 2000 CDC growth charts were developed with improved data and statistical procedures. Health care providers now have an instrument for growth screening that better represents the racial-ethnic diversity and combination of breast- and formula-feeding in the United States. It is recommended that these charts replace the 1977 NCHS charts when assessing the size and growth patterns of infants, children, and adolescents.
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            A nearly continuous measure of birth weight for gestational age using a United States national reference

            Background Fully understanding the determinants and sequelae of fetal growth requires a continuous measure of birth weight adjusted for gestational age. Published United States reference data, however, provide estimates only of the median and lowest and highest 5th and 10th percentiles for birth weight at each gestational age. The purpose of our analysis was to create more continuous reference measures of birth weight for gestational age for use in epidemiologic analyses. Methods We used data from the most recent nationwide United States Natality datasets to generate multiple reference percentiles of birth weight at each completed week of gestation from 22 through 44 weeks. Gestational age was determined from last menstrual period. We analyzed data from 6,690,717 singleton infants with recorded birth weight and sex born to United States resident mothers in 1999 and 2000. Results Birth weight rose with greater gestational age, with increasing slopes during the third trimester and a leveling off beyond 40 weeks. Boys had higher birth weights than girls, later born children higher weights than firstborns, and infants born to non-Hispanic white mothers higher birth weights than those born to non-Hispanic black mothers. These results correspond well with previously published estimates reporting limited percentiles. Conclusions Our method provides comprehensive reference values of birth weight at 22 through 44 completed weeks of gestation, derived from broadly based nationwide data. Other approaches require assumptions of normality or of a functional relationship between gestational age and birth weight, which may not be appropriate. These data should prove useful for researchers investigating the predictors and outcomes of altered fetal growth.
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              Childhood obesity and metabolic imprinting: the ongoing effects of maternal hyperglycemia.

              The purpose of this study was to determine how the range of measured maternal glycemia in pregnancy relates to risk of obesity in childhood. Universal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening (a 50-g glucose challenge test [GCT]) was performed in two regions (Northwest and Hawaii) of a large diverse HMO during 1995-2000, and GDM was diagnosed/treated using a 3-h 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) criteria. Measured weight in offspring (n = 9,439) was ascertained 5-7 years later to calculate sex-specific weight-for-age percentiles using U.S. norms (1963-1994 standard) and then classified by maternal positive GCT (1 h >or= 7.8 mmol/l) and OGTT results (1 or >or=2 of the 4 time points abnormal: fasting, 1 h, 2 h, or 3 h by Carpenter and Coustan and NDDG criteria). There was a positive trend for increasing childhood obesity at age 5-7 years (P < 0.0001; 85th and 95th percentiles) across the range of increasing maternal glucose screen values, which remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal weight gain, maternal age, parity, ethnicity, and birth weight. The risk of childhood obesity in offspring of mothers with GDM by NDDG criteria (treated) was attenuated compared with the risks for the groups with lesser degrees of hyperglycemia (untreated). The relationships were similar among Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Stratification by birth weight also revealed these effects in children of normal birth weight (

                Author and article information

                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                October 2013
                14 September 2013
                : 36
                : 10
                : 3045-3053
                Obesity Prevention Program, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Nolwenn Regnault, nolwenn.regnault@ .
                © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.

                Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See for details.

                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Original Research
                Epidemiology/Health Services Research

                Endocrinology & Diabetes


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