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      Hypothermia for neuroprotection in children after cardiopulmonary arrest

      1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 1

      Cochrane Anaesthesia, Critical and Emergency Care Group

      Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

      Wiley

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          Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest.

            (2002)
          Cardiac arrest with widespread cerebral ischemia frequently leads to severe neurologic impairment. We studied whether mild systemic hypothermia increases the rate of neurologic recovery after resuscitation from cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. In this multicenter trial with blinded assessment of the outcome, patients who had been resuscitated after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation were randomly assigned to undergo therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 32 degrees C to 34 degrees C, measured in the bladder) over a period of 24 hours or to receive standard treatment with normothermia. The primary end point was a favorable neurologic outcome within six months after cardiac arrest; secondary end points were mortality within six months and the rate of complications within seven days. Seventy-five of the 136 patients in the hypothermia group for whom data were available (55 percent) had a favorable neurologic outcome (cerebral-performance category, 1 [good recovery] or 2 [moderate disability]), as compared with 54 of 137 (39 percent) in the normothermia group (risk ratio, 1.40; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.81). Mortality at six months was 41 percent in the hypothermia group (56 of 137 patients died), as compared with 55 percent in the normothermia group (76 of 138 patients; risk ratio, 0.74; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.95). The complication rate did not differ significantly between the two groups. In patients who have been successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation, therapeutic mild hypothermia increased the rate of a favorable neurologic outcome and reduced mortality.
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            Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia.

            Cardiac arrest outside the hospital is common and has a poor outcome. Studies in laboratory animals suggest that hypothermia induced shortly after the restoration of spontaneous circulation may improve neurologic outcome, but there have been no conclusive studies in humans. In a randomized, controlled trial, we compared the effects of moderate hypothermia and normothermia in patients who remained unconscious after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The study subjects were 77 patients who were randomly assigned to treatment with hypothermia (with the core body temperature reduced to 33 degrees C within 2 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation and maintained at that temperature for 12 hours) or normothermia. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge with sufficiently good neurologic function to be discharged to home or to a rehabilitation facility. The demographic characteristics of the patients were similar in the hypothermia and normothermia groups. Twenty-one of the 43 patients treated with hypothermia (49 percent) survived and had a good outcome--that is, they were discharged home or to a rehabilitation facility--as compared with 9 of the 34 treated with normothermia (26 percent, P=0.046). After adjustment for base-line differences in age and time from collapse to the return of spontaneous circulation, the odds ratio for a good outcome with hypothermia as compared with normothermia was 5.25 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.47 to 18.76; P=0.011). Hypothermia was associated with a lower cardiac index, higher systemic vascular resistance, and hyperglycemia. There was no difference in the frequency of adverse events. Our preliminary observations suggest that treatment with moderate hypothermia appears to improve outcomes in patients with coma after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
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              Whole-body hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

              Hypothermia is protective against brain injury after asphyxiation in animal models. However, the safety and effectiveness of hypothermia in term infants with encephalopathy is uncertain. We conducted a randomized trial of hypothermia in infants with a gestational age of at least 36 weeks who were admitted to the hospital at or before six hours of age with either severe acidosis or perinatal complications and resuscitation at birth and who had moderate or severe encephalopathy. Infants were randomly assigned to usual care (control group) or whole-body cooling to an esophageal temperature of 33.5 degrees C for 72 hours, followed by slow rewarming (hypothermia group). Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 18 to 22 months of age. The primary outcome was a combined end point of death or moderate or severe disability. Of 239 eligible infants, 102 were assigned to the hypothermia group and 106 to the control group. Adverse events were similar in the two groups during the 72 hours of cooling. Primary outcome data were available for 205 infants. Death or moderate or severe disability occurred in 45 of 102 infants (44 percent) in the hypothermia group and 64 of 103 infants (62 percent) in the control group (risk ratio, 0.72; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.95; P=0.01). Twenty-four infants (24 percent) in the hypothermia group and 38 (37 percent) in the control group died (risk ratio, 0.68; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.44 to 1.05; P=0.08). There was no increase in major disability among survivors; the rate of cerebral palsy was 15 of 77 (19 percent) in the hypothermia group as compared with 19 of 64 (30 percent) in the control group (risk ratio, 0.68; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.38 to 1.22; P=0.20). Whole-body hypothermia reduces the risk of death or disability in infants with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
                Wiley
                14651858
                February 28 2013
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Birmingham Children's Hospital; Paediatric Intensive Care Unit; Steelhouse Lane Birmingham UK B4 6NH
                [2 ]Birmingham Children's Hospital; Department of Research and Development; Steelhouse Lane Birmingham UK B4 6NH
                [3 ]University of Birmingham; Perioperative, Critical Care and Trauma Trials Group, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine; Birmingham UK
                [4 ]Barts and the London School of Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London; Centre for Health Sciences; London UK
                [5 ]Warwick Medical School and Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust; Warwick UK
                10.1002/14651858.CD009442.pub2
                © 2013
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