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      Bacterial Infections After Burn Injuries: Impact of Multidrug Resistance

      1 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 1
      Clinical Infectious Diseases
      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d1774909e163">Patients with burn injuries are at high risk for infections with multidrug-resistant organisms. The risk of infection with multidrug-resistant organisms increases with burn center length of stay. A multidisciplinary approach that includes an infectious diseases specialist is recommended. </p><p id="d1774909e168">Patients who are admitted to the hospital after sustaining a large burn injury are at high risk for developing hospital-associated infections. If patients survive the initial 72 hours after a burn injury, infections are the most common cause of death. Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most important infection in this patient population. The risk of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens increases with hospital length of stay in burn patients. In the first days of the postburn hospitalization, more susceptible, Gram-positive organisms predominate, whereas later more resistant Gram-negative organisms are found. These findings impact the choice of empiric antibiotics in critically ill burn patients. A proactive infection control approach is essential in burn units. Furthermore, a multidisciplinary approach to burn patients with a team that includes an infectious disease specialist and a pharmacist in addition to the burn surgeon is highly recommended. </p>

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          In a representative sample of US general hospitals, the authors found that the establishment of intensive infection surveillance and control programs was strongly associated with reductions in rates of nosocomial urinary tract infection, surgical wound infection, pneumonia, and bacteremia between 1970 and 1975-1976, after controlling for other characteristics of the hospitals and their patients. Essential components of effective programs included conducting organized surveillance and control activities and having a trained, effectual infection control physician, an infection control nurse per 250 beds, and a system for reporting infection rates to practicing surgeons. Programs with these components reduced their hospitals' infection rates by 32%. Since relatively few hospitals had very effective programs, however, only 6% of the nation's approximately 2 million nosocomial infections were being prevented in the mid-1970s, leaving another 26% to be prevented by universal adoption of these programs. Among hospitals without effective programs, the overall infection rate increased by 18% from 1970 to 1976.
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              Intervention to reduce transmission of resistant bacteria in intensive care.

              Intensive care units (ICUs) are high-risk settings for the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). In a cluster-randomized trial, we evaluated the effect of surveillance for MRSA and VRE colonization and of the expanded use of barrier precautions (intervention) as compared with existing practice (control) on the incidence of MRSA or VRE colonization or infection in adult ICUs. Surveillance cultures were obtained from patients in all participating ICUs; the results were reported only to ICUs assigned to the intervention. In intervention ICUs, patients who were colonized or infected with MRSA or VRE were assigned to care with contact precautions; all the other patients were assigned to care with universal gloving until their discharge or until surveillance cultures obtained at admission were reported to be negative. During a 6-month intervention period, there were 5434 admissions to 10 intervention ICUs, and 3705 admissions to 8 control ICUs. Patients who were colonized or infected with MRSA or VRE were assigned to barrier precautions more frequently in intervention ICUs than in control ICUs (a median of 92% of ICU days with either contact precautions or universal gloving [51% with contact precautions and 43% with universal gloving] in intervention ICUs vs. a median of 38% of ICU days with contact precautions in control ICUs, P<0.001). In intervention ICUs, health care providers used clean gloves, gowns, and hand hygiene less frequently than required for contacts with patients assigned to barrier precautions; when contact precautions were specified, gloves were used for a median of 82% of contacts, gowns for 77% of contacts, and hand hygiene after 69% of contacts, and when universal gloving was specified, gloves were used for a median of 72% of contacts and hand hygiene after 62% of contacts. The mean (±SE) ICU-level incidence of events of colonization or infection with MRSA or VRE per 1000 patient-days at risk, adjusted for baseline incidence, did not differ significantly between the intervention and control ICUs (40.4±3.3 and 35.6±3.7 in the two groups, respectively; P=0.35). The intervention was not effective in reducing the transmission of MRSA or VRE, although the use of barrier precautions by providers was less than what was required. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; STAR*ICU ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00100386.).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Infectious Diseases
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1058-4838
                1537-6591
                December 15 2017
                November 29 2017
                October 08 2017
                December 15 2017
                November 29 2017
                October 08 2017
                : 65
                : 12
                : 2130-2136
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
                [2 ]Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
                [3 ]North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center, Chapel Hill
                Article
                10.1093/cid/cix682
                5850038
                29194526
                8aec2e47-95f0-4530-be95-5025278860dd
                © 2017
                History

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