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      Animal Cruelty among Children in Violent Households: Children’s Explanations of their Behavior

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          A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment.

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            Human aggression.

            Research on human aggression has progressed to a point at which a unifying framework is needed. Major domain-limited theories of aggression include cognitive neoassociation, social learning, social interaction, script, and excitation transfer theories. Using the general aggression model (GAM), this review posits cognition, affect, and arousal to mediate the effects of situational and personological variables on aggression. The review also organizes recent theories of the development and persistence of aggressive personality. Personality is conceptualized as a set of stable knowledge structures that individuals use to interpret events in their social world and to guide their behavior. In addition to organizing what is already known about human aggression, this review, using the GAM framework, also serves the heuristic function of suggesting what research is needed to fill in theoretical gaps and can be used to create and test interventions for reducing aggression.
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              Social information-processing mechanisms in reactive and proactive aggression.

              Theories of aggressive behavior and ethological observations in animals and children suggest the existence of distinct forms of reactive (hostile) and proactive (instrumental) aggression. Toward the validation of this distinction, groups of reactive aggressive, proactive aggressive, and nonaggressive children were identified (n = 624 9-12-year-olds). Social information-processing patterns were assessed in these groups by presenting hypothetical vignettes to subjects. 3 hypotheses were tested: (1) only the reactive-aggressive children would demonstrate hostile biases in their attributions of peers' intentions in provocation situations (because such biases are known to lead to reactive anger); (2) only proactive-aggressive children would evaluate aggression and its consequences in relatively positive ways (because proactive aggression is motivated by its expected external outcomes); and (3) proactive-aggressive children would select instrumental social goals rather than relational goals more often than nonaggressive children. All 3 hypotheses were at least partially supported.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Family Violence
                J Fam Viol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0885-7482
                1573-2851
                October 2018
                May 17 2018
                October 2018
                : 33
                : 7
                : 469-480
                Article
                10.1007/s10896-018-9970-7
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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