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      Steroids as an adjunct for reducing the incidence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          This meta-analysis was performed to determine the effectiveness of steroids as an adjunct following rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery.

          Methods

          RRD patients with or without proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) were included. The treatment group included patients in whom steroids were used as an adjunct and a control group in which placebo was used. Only randomized controlled trials were included. We searched the main electronic databases and included studies published until July 2014. PVR odds ratio, visual acuity, retinal reattachment rate, and complications were evaluated in three trials.

          Results

          Three randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative PVR between groups (heterogeneity I 2=48%, P=0.14). However, the incidence of postoperative PVR was lower in the treatment group ( I 2=0%, P<0.0001) than in the control group when a PVR grade C study was excluded. There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative visual acuity between the treatment and control groups (odds ratio −0.18; 95% confidence interval −0.38, 0.02; P=0.08). The two groups had similar results for primary/final retinal reattachment and reoperation rate. There was no significant difference in postoperative intraocular pressure.

          Conclusion

          This systematic review demonstrates that steroids may significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative PVR grade B or lower following RRD surgery.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Triamcinolone acetonide in silicone-filled eyes as adjunctive treatment for proliferative vitreoretinopathy: a randomized clinical trial.

          To evaluate the effect of adjunctive intraocular triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in silicone-filled eyes on outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery for proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Seventy-five eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and PVR grade C (posterior, anterior, or both) undergoing vitrectomy combined with silicone oil tamponade were included. Of these, 38 eyes were assigned randomly to the adjunctive treatment, whereas 37 eyes served as controls. All eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy, membrane peeling, and silicone oil exchange, with or without relaxing retinotomy or retinectomy. In the treatment group, 4 mg TA was injected into the silicone-filled vitreous cavity at the end of the procedure. Silicone oil was removed 3 months after surgery in eyes with attached retinas. The primary outcome measure was retinal reattachment rate at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included visual acuity, rate of recurrent PVR, reoperation rate, and rise of intraocular pressure. Retinal reattachment without any reoperation was achieved in 32 eyes (84.2%) and 29 eyes (78.4%) in the adjunctive treatment and control groups, respectively, at 6 months (P = 0.5). No statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in terms of any of the secondary outcome measures (P>0.05). The outcomes of vitreoretinal surgery for established PVR are not improved significantly by adjunctive TA injection in silicone-filled eyes.
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            Randomized controlled trial of combined 5-Fluorouracil and low-molecular-weight heparin in the management of unselected rhegmatogenous retinal detachments undergoing primary vitrectomy.

            To determine the efficacy of a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in the treatment of unselected rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) undergoing primary vitrectomy. Double-masked, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Six hundred forty-one patients presenting with primary RRD were recruited from 2 specialized vitreoretinal units-Moorfields Eye Hospital, London (n = 553) and St. Pauls Eye Unit, Liverpool (n = 88). All patients underwent primary vitrectomy and gas endotamponade. Adjuvant therapy in the treatment group consisted of 5 IU/ml LMWH and 200 mug/ml 5FU added to the perioperative infusion fluid. The primary outcome measure was retinal reattachment after primary vitrectomy without any reoperations at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures recorded at 6 months were the occurrence and grade of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), best-corrected visual acuity in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, intraocular pressure (mmHg), corneal clarity, and complications. The overall primary success rate was 84.4%; in the treatment group, the primary success rate was 82.3% compared with 86.8% in the placebo group (P = 0.12). At 6 months, the final complete anatomical reattachment rate was 97.9% in both treatment and placebo groups. The number of patients who failed due to the development of PVR was not statistically significant, 23 in the treatment group (7.0%) and 14 in the placebo group (4.9%) (P = 0.309). There was no significant difference in the mean visual acuity at 6 months in the placebo group (0.48) versus the treatment group (0.53; P = 0.072). The visual acuity at 6 months of patients presenting with a macula-sparing retinal detachment was significantly worse in the treatment group (P = 0.0091). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in patients who presented with a macula involving retinal detachment (P = 0.896). Primary vitrectomy has a high anatomic and visual success rate for RRD. Adjuvant therapy with 5FU and LMWH does not improve the anatomic or visual success rate of unselected primary retinal detachments undergoing vitrectomy. After adjuvant therapy, a worse visual outcome was observed in patients presenting with macula-sparing retinal detachments. A combination of 5FU and LMWH should not be used routinely for primary RRD surgery.
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              Intravitreal injection of crystalline cortisone as adjunctive treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

              To report on clinical outcome and complications of intravitreal injection of crystalline cortisone in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The study included all 16 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy, who received an intravitreal injection of 10-20 mg crystalline triamcinolone acetonide at the end of surgery, and who were operated on by the same surgeon. Most of the vehicle of the solution containing the cortisone crystals was removed before performing the injection. Mean follow up time was 1.64 (SD 2.15) months (median 1. 23 months; range 0.20-9.20 months). The study group was compared with a control group which consisted of 144 patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy performed by the same surgeon. In the study group compared with the control group, intraocular inflammation, as estimated clinically by slit lamp biomicroscopy, was lower, appearance of the fundus upon ophthalmoscopy in the first postoperative week was clearer, and postoperative pain in the first two postoperative days was reduced. Intraocular pressure measured at the end of the first postoperative week did not vary significantly between the groups. A pseudohypopyon consisting of cortisone crystals in the inferior anterior chamber angle was detected in one patient. Postoperative infectious endophthalmitis was not encountered. This pilot study suggests that intravitreal injection of crystalline cortisone with most of the vehicle removed is not toxic to intraocular structures, reduces postoperative intraocular inflammation, and may be a potentially useful additional tool in the treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                06 March 2015
                : 9
                : 1393-1400
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of First Clinical Medical College, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Third People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jing Yu, Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, 301 Middle Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072, People’s Republic of China, Email jingyudryujing@ 123456aliyun.com

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-9-1393
                10.2147/DDDT.S80983
                4358646
                25834397
                © 2015 Shi et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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