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      How Much Remnant Is Enough in Liver Resection?

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          Abstract

          Background: Liver resection represents the first choice of treatment for primary and secondary liver malignancies, offering the patient the best chance of long-term survival. The extensive use of major hepatectomy increases the risk of post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF), which is associated with a high frequency of postoperative complications, mortality and increased length of hospital stay. Aims: The aim of this review is to investigate the different risk factors related to the occurrence of PHLF and to identify the limits for a safe liver resection in patients with normal liver and injured liver (cirrhosis, cholestasis, steatosis and post-chemotherapy liver injury). Methods: A literature search was undertaken in PubMed and related search engines, looking for articles relating to hepatic failure following hepatectomy in normal liver or injured liver. Results: In spite of improvements in surgical and postoperative management, the parameters determining how much liver can be resected are still largely undefined. A number of preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative factors all contribute to the likelihood of liver failure after surgery. The safe limits for liver resection can be estimated from the data of the literature for patients with normal liver and for those with different types of liver injury. Conclusions: Preoperative assessment that includes evaluation of liver volume and function of the remnant liver is a mandatory prerequisite before major hepatectomy. The critical residual liver volume for patients able to predict PHLF is mainly related to the presence of pre-existing liver disease and liver function. Among patients with normal liver, the limit for safe resection ranges from 20 to 30% future remnant liver of total liver volume. In patients with injured liver (cirrhosis, cholestasis or steatosis), preoperative assessment of the risk of PHLF should include future remnant liver volumetry and accurate liver function evaluation, including different dynamic liver function tests.

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          Most cited references 84

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          Surgical resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer: A systematic review of published studies

          No consensus on the indications for surgical resection of colorectal liver metastases exists. This systematic review has been undertaken to assess the published evidence for its efficacy and safety and to identify prognostic factors. Studies were identified by computerised and hand searches of the literature, scanning references and contacting investigators. The outcome measures were overall survival, disease-free survival, postoperative morbidity and mortality, quality of life and cost effectiveness, and a qualitative summary of the trends across all studies was produced. Only 30 of 529 independent studies met all the eligibility criteria for the review, and data on 30-day mortality and morbidity only were included from a further nine studies. The best available evidence came from prospective case series, but only two studies reported outcomes for all patients undergoing surgery. The remainder reported outcomes for selected groups of patients: those undergoing hepatic resection or those undergoing curative resection. Postoperative mortality rates were generally low (median 2.8%). The majority of studies described only serious postoperative morbidity, the most common being bile leak and associated perihepatic abscess. Approximately 30% of patients remained alive 5 years after resection and around two-thirds of these are disease free. The quality of the majority of published papers was poor and ascertaining the benefits of surgical resection of colorectal hepatic metastases is difficult in the absence of randomised trials. However, it is clear that there is group of patients with liver metastases who may become long-term disease- free survivors following hepatic resection. Such survival is rare in apparently comparable patients who do not have surgical treatment. Further work is needed to more accurately define this group of patients and to determine whether the addition of adjuvant treatments results in improved survival.
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            Liver Regeneration

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              Improvement in Perioperative Outcome After Hepatic Resection

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                DSU
                Dig Surg
                10.1159/issn.0253-4886
                Digestive Surgery
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-9974-0
                978-3-8055-9975-7
                0253-4886
                1421-9883
                2012
                March 2012
                15 March 2012
                : 29
                : 1
                : 6-17
                Affiliations
                Division of General Surgery ‘A’, Department of Surgery, University of Verona Medical School, Verona, Italy
                Author notes
                *Prof. Alfredo Guglielmi, Division of General Surgery ‘A’, Department of Surgery, University of Verona Medical School, GB Rossi University Hospital, Piazzale L.A. Scuro 10, IT–37134 Verona (Italy), Tel. +39 045 812 4464, E-Mail alfredo.guglielmi@univr.it
                Article
                335713 Dig Surg 2012;29:6–17
                10.1159/000335713
                22441614
                © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Pages: 12
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