A composite slab comprised of self-compacting rubber lightweight aggregate concrete (SCRLC) and profiled steel sheeting is a new type of structural element with a series of superior properties. This paper presents an experimental research and finite element analysis (FEA) of the flexural behavior of composite slabs consisting of SCRLC to develop a new floor system. Four composite slabs specimens with different shear spans (450 mm and 800 mm) and SCRLC (0% and 30% in rubber particles substitution ratio) are prepared, and the flexural properties including failure modes, deflection at mid-span, profiled steel sheeting, and concrete surface stain at mid-span and end slippage are investigated by four-point bending tests. The experimental results indicate that applying SCRLC30 in composites slabs will improve the anti-cracking ability under the loading of composite slabs compared with composite slabs consisting of self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete (SCLC). FEM on the flexural properties of SCRLC composites slabs show that the yield load, ultimate load, and deflection corresponding to the yield load and the ultimate load of composite slabs drop as the rubber particles content increases in SCRLC. The variation of SCRLC strength has less impact on the flexural bearing capacity of corresponding composite slabs. Based on the traditional calculated method of the ultimate bending moment of normal concrete (NC) composite slabs, a modified calculated method for the ultimate bending moment of SCRLC composite slabs is proposed.