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      Effects of Host Variability on the Spread of Invasive Forest Diseases

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      Forests
      MDPI AG

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          Evolutionary genetics of invasive species

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            Pathogen population genetics, evolutionary potential, and durable resistance.

            We hypothesize that the evolutionary potential of a pathogen population is reflected in its population genetic structure. Pathogen populations with a high evolutionary potential are more likely to overcome genetic resistance than pathogen populations with a low evolutionary potential. We propose a flexible framework to predict the evolutionary potential of pathogen populations based on analysis of their genetic structure. According to this framework, pathogens that pose the greatest risk of breaking down resistance genes have a mixed reproduction system, a high potential for genotype flow, large effective population sizes, and high mutation rates. The lowest risk pathogens are those with strict asexual reproduction, low potential for gene flow, small effective population sizes, and low mutation rates. We present examples of high-risk and low-risk pathogens. We propose general guidelines for a rational approach to breed durable resistance according to the evolutionary potential of the pathogen.
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              Biogeographical patterns and determinants of invasion by forest pathogens in Europe.

              A large database of invasive forest pathogens (IFPs) was developed to investigate the patterns and determinants of invasion in Europe. Detailed taxonomic and biological information on the invasive species was combined with country-specific data on land use, climate, and the time since invasion to identify the determinants of invasiveness, and to differentiate the class of environments which share territorial and climate features associated with a susceptibility to invasion. IFPs increased exponentially in the last four decades. Until 1919, IFPs already present moved across Europe. Then, new IFPs were introduced mainly from North America, and recently from Asia. Hybrid pathogens also appeared. Countries with a wider range of environments, higher human impact or international trade hosted more IFPs. Rainfall influenced the diffusion rates. Environmental conditions of the new and original ranges and systematic and ecological attributes affected invasiveness. Further spread of established IFPs is expected in countries that have experienced commercial isolation in the recent past. Densely populated countries with high environmental diversity may be the weakest links in attempts to prevent new arrivals. Tight coordination of actions against new arrivals is needed. Eradication seems impossible, and prevention seems the only reliable measure, although this will be difficult in the face of global mobility. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Forests
                Forests
                MDPI AG
                1999-4907
                March 2017
                March 15 2017
                : 8
                : 3
                : 80
                Article
                10.3390/f8030080
                8b0a2793-a0a4-4564-b1a0-51a3cf2a6849
                © 2017

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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