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      Broadening the Scope of Nanopublications


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          In this paper, we present an approach for extending the existing concept of nanopublications --- tiny entities of scientific results in RDF representation --- to broaden their application range. The proposed extension uses English sentences to represent informal and underspecified scientific claims. These sentences follow a syntactic and semantic scheme that we call AIDA (Atomic, Independent, Declarative, Absolute), which provides a uniform and succinct representation of scientific assertions. Such AIDA nanopublications are compatible with the existing nanopublication concept and enjoy most of its advantages such as information sharing, interlinking of scientific findings, and detailed attribution, while being more flexible and applicable to a much wider range of scientific results. We show that users are able to create AIDA sentences for given scientific results quickly and at high quality, and that it is feasible to automatically extract and interlink AIDA nanopublications from existing unstructured data sources. To demonstrate our approach, a web-based interface is introduced, which also exemplifies the use of nanopublications for non-scientific content, including meta-nanopublications that describe other nanopublications.

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          Most cited references 8

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          The value of data.

          Data citation and the derivation of semantic constructs directly from datasets have now both found their place in scientific communication. The social challenge facing us is to maintain the value of traditional narrative publications and their relationship to the datasets they report upon while at the same time developing appropriate metrics for citation of data and data constructs.
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            An ontology of scientific experiments.

            The formal description of experiments for efficient analysis, annotation and sharing of results is a fundamental part of the practice of science. Ontologies are required to achieve this objective. A few subject-specific ontologies of experiments currently exist. However, despite the unity of scientific experimentation, no general ontology of experiments exists. We propose the ontology EXPO to meet this need. EXPO links the SUMO (the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology) with subject-specific ontologies of experiments by formalizing the generic concepts of experimental design, methodology and results representation. EXPO is expressed in the W3C standard ontology language OWL-DL. We demonstrate the utility of EXPO and its ability to describe different experimental domains, by applying it to two experiments: one in high-energy physics and the other in phylogenetics. The use of EXPO made the goals and structure of these experiments more explicit, revealed ambiguities, and highlighted an unexpected similarity. We conclude that, EXPO is of general value in describing experiments and a step towards the formalization of science.
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              The SWAN biomedical discourse ontology.

              Developing cures for highly complex diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, requires extensive interdisciplinary collaboration and exchange of biomedical information in context. Our ability to exchange such information across sub-specialties today is limited by the current scientific knowledge ecosystem's inability to properly contextualize and integrate data and discourse in machine-interpretable form. This inherently limits the productivity of research and the progress toward cures for devastating diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. SWAN (Semantic Web Applications in Neuromedicine) is an interdisciplinary project to develop a practical, common, semantically structured, framework for biomedical discourse initially applied, but not limited, to significant problems in Alzheimer Disease (AD) research. The SWAN ontology has been developed in the context of building a series of applications for biomedical researchers, as well as in extensive discussions and collaborations with the larger bio-ontologies community. In this paper, we present and discuss the SWAN ontology of biomedical discourse. We ground its development theoretically, present its design approach, explain its main classes and their application, and show its relationship to other ongoing activities in biomedicine and bio-ontologies.

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                11 March 2013


                Custom metadata
                LNCS 7882
                To appear in the Proceedings of the 10th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2013)
                cs.DL cs.IR


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