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      Consumption of a Low Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides, and Polyols Diet and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review

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          Abstract

          Consumption of low dietary fermentable carbohydrates, including fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) has been hypothesized to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study was done to summarize findings from earlier evidence on the effect of a low FODMAP diet (LFD) on the symptoms of IBS. We searched in ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: “FODMAP” OR “oligosaccharides” OR “disaccharides” OR “Monosaccharaides” in combination with “irritable bowel syndrome” or “IBS” or “Gastrointestinal Disease.” The reference lists of the relevant papers were also examined to avoid missing any publication. No time and language restrictions were applied. The relevant studies were selected through an independent search by two investigators. Overall, 778 relevant articles were found in our initial search. After reviewing title and abstracts, 763 papers were excluded from this review and 15 studies were included. All published studies were interventional studies in which patients with IBS had been recommended or randomized to receive a LFD. Three studies had quasi-experimental design, 9 were parallel randomized clinical trial and 3 studies were of randomized cross-over trials. These studies were conducted between 2009 and 2016. Nine studies were done in Europe, 2 in US, 3 in Australia, and one in Asia. Sample sizes of these studies were varied from 12 to 182. All studies had been conducted on both sexes, with the majority of participants as women (>70%). The age range was between 11 and 74 years in different studies. One study was performed on children, 9 on adults, and 5 others were in young-to-middle age groups. Duration of intervention was varied from 2 days to 16 months (2 studies with <1 week, and others with more than 2 weeks). Eight studies had suggested a significant effect of LFD on the improvement of all IBS symptoms, and 1 study had reported improvement in all symptoms except for constipation. One study had not found a significant difference between LFD and lactobacillus GG on IBS symptoms. Another paper had reported no significant effect of an LFD on IBS compared with the traditional IBS diet. The other paper had reported LFD improved 75% of diarrhea. Adherence to an LFD was not associated with the severity of symptoms. It is concluded that consumption of an LFD might reduce symptoms of IBS; however, further studies are required to shed light on inconsistencies in this field.

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          Most cited references 26

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          A diet low in FODMAPs reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

          A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) often is used to manage functional gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), yet there is limited evidence of its efficacy, compared with a normal Western diet. We investigated the effects of a diet low in FODMAPs compared with an Australian diet, in a randomized, controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial of patients with IBS. In a study of 30 patients with IBS and 8 healthy individuals (controls, matched for demographics and diet), we collected dietary data from subjects for 1 habitual week. Participants then randomly were assigned to groups that received 21 days of either a diet low in FODMAPs or a typical Australian diet, followed by a washout period of at least 21 days, before crossing over to the alternate diet. Daily symptoms were rated using a 0- to 100-mm visual analogue scale. Almost all food was provided during the interventional diet periods, with a goal of less than 0.5 g intake of FODMAPs per meal for the low-FODMAP diet. All stools were collected from days 17-21 and assessed for frequency, weight, water content, and King's Stool Chart rating. Subjects with IBS had lower overall gastrointestinal symptom scores (22.8; 95% confidence interval, 16.7-28.8 mm) while on a diet low in FODMAPs, compared with the Australian diet (44.9; 95% confidence interval, 36.6-53.1 mm; P < .001) and the subjects' habitual diet. Bloating, pain, and passage of wind also were reduced while IBS patients were on the low-FODMAP diet. Symptoms were minimal and unaltered by either diet among controls. Patients of all IBS subtypes had greater satisfaction with stool consistency while on the low-FODMAP diet, but diarrhea-predominant IBS was the only subtype with altered fecal frequency and King's Stool Chart scores. In a controlled, cross-over study of patients with IBS, a diet low in FODMAPs effectively reduced functional gastrointestinal symptoms. This high-quality evidence supports its use as a first-line therapy. ACTRN12612001185853. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Fermentable carbohydrate restriction reduces luminal bifidobacteria and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

            Preliminary studies indicate that dietary restriction of fermentable short-chain carbohydrates improves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides and galacto-oligosaccharides stimulate colonic bifidobacteria. However, the effect of restricting fermentable short-chain carbohydrates on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota has never been examined. This randomized controlled trial aimed to investigate the effects of fermentable carbohydrate restriction on luminal microbiota, SCFA, and GI symptoms in patients with IBS. Patients with IBS were randomized to the intervention diet or habitual diet for 4 wk. The incidence and severity of symptoms and stool output were recorded for 7 d at baseline and follow-up. A stool sample was collected and analyzed for bacterial groups using fluorescent in situ hybridization. Of 41 patients randomized, 6 were withdrawn. At follow-up, there was lower intake of total short-chain fermentable carbohydrates in the intervention group compared with controls (P = 0.001). The total luminal bacteria at follow-up did not differ between groups; however, there were lower concentrations (P < 0.001) and proportions (P < 0.001) of bifidobacteria in the intervention group compared with controls when adjusted for baseline. In the intention-to-treat analysis, more patients in the intervention group reported adequate control of symptoms (13/19, 68%) compared with controls (5/22, 23%; P = 0.005). This randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in concentration and proportion of luminal bifidobacteria after 4 wk of fermentable carbohydrate restriction. Although the intervention was effective in managing IBS symptoms, the implications of its effect on the GI microbiota are still to be determined.
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              Manipulation of dietary short chain carbohydrates alters the pattern of gas production and genesis of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome.

              Reduction of short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (FODMAPs) in the diet reduces symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In the present study, we aimed to compare the patterns of breath hydrogen and methane and symptoms produced in response to diets that differed only in FODMAP content. Fifteen healthy subjects and 15 with IBS (Rome III criteria) undertook a single-blind, crossover intervention trial involving consuming provided diets that were either low (9 g/day) or high (50 g/day) in FODMAPs for 2 days. Food and gastrointestinal symptom diaries were kept and breath samples collected hourly over 14 h on day 2 of each diet. Higher levels of breath hydrogen were produced over the entire day with the high FODMAP diet for healthy volunteers (181 +/- 77 ppm.14 h vs 43 +/- 18; mean +/- SD P < 0.0001) and patients with IBS (242 +/- 79 vs 62 +/- 23; P < 0.0001), who had higher levels during each dietary period than the controls (P < 0.05). Breath methane, produced by 10 subjects within each group, was reduced with the high FODMAP intake in healthy subjects (47 +/- 29 vs 109 +/- 77; P = 0.043), but was not different in patients with IBS (126 +/- 153 vs 86 +/- 72). Gastrointestinal symptoms and lethargy were significantly induced by the high FODMAP diet in patients with IBS, while only increased flatus production was reported by healthy volunteers. Dietary FODMAPs induce prolonged hydrogen production in the intestine that is greater in IBS, influence the amount of methane produced, and induce gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms experienced by patients with IBS. The results offer mechanisms underlying the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet in IBS.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ] Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [3 ] Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Dr. Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Department of Education Development in Nutrition, Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, P. O. Box 14155-6117, Iran. E-mail: a-esmaillzadeh@ 123456sina.tums.ac.ir
                Journal
                Int J Prev Med
                Int J Prev Med
                IJPVM
                International Journal of Preventive Medicine
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                2008-7802
                2008-8213
                2017
                13 December 2017
                : 8
                29416833 5760846 IJPVM-8-104 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_175_17
                Copyright: © 2017 International Journal of Preventive Medicine

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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