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      Revisiting the role of ABC transporters in multidrug-resistant cancer

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          Multidrug resistance in cancer: role of ATP-dependent transporters.

          Chemotherapeutics are the most effective treatment for metastatic tumours. However, the ability of cancer cells to become simultaneously resistant to different drugs--a trait known as multidrug resistance--remains a significant impediment to successful chemotherapy. Three decades of multidrug-resistance research have identified a myriad of ways in which cancer cells can elude chemotherapy, and it has become apparent that resistance exists against every effective drug, even our newest agents. Therefore, the ability to predict and circumvent drug resistance is likely to improve chemotherapy.
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            Inhibition of mutated, activated BRAF in metastatic melanoma.

            The identification of somatic mutations in the gene encoding the serine-threonine protein kinase B-RAF (BRAF) in the majority of melanomas offers an opportunity to test oncogene-targeted therapy for this disease. We conducted a multicenter, phase 1, dose-escalation trial of PLX4032 (also known as RG7204), an orally available inhibitor of mutated BRAF, followed by an extension phase involving the maximum dose that could be administered without adverse effects (the recommended phase 2 dose). Patients received PLX4032 twice daily until they had disease progression. Pharmacokinetic analysis and tumor-response assessments were conducted in all patients. In selected patients, tumor biopsy was performed before and during treatment to validate BRAF inhibition. A total of 55 patients (49 of whom had melanoma) were enrolled in the dose-escalation phase, and 32 additional patients with metastatic melanoma who had BRAF with the V600E mutation were enrolled in the extension phase. The recommended phase 2 dose was 960 mg twice daily, with increases in the dose limited by grade 2 or 3 rash, fatigue, and arthralgia. In the dose-escalation cohort, among the 16 patients with melanoma whose tumors carried the V600E BRAF mutation and who were receiving 240 mg or more of PLX4032 twice daily, 10 had a partial response and 1 had a complete response. Among the 32 patients in the extension cohort, 24 had a partial response and 2 had a complete response. The estimated median progression-free survival among all patients was more than 7 months. Treatment of metastatic melanoma with PLX4032 in patients with tumors that carry the V600E BRAF mutation resulted in complete or partial tumor regression in the majority of patients. (Funded by Plexxikon and Roche Pharmaceuticals.)
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              Targeting multidrug resistance in cancer.

              Effective treatment of metastatic cancers usually requires the use of toxic chemotherapy. In most cases, multiple drugs are used, as resistance to single agents occurs almost universally. For this reason, elucidation of mechanisms that confer simultaneous resistance to different drugs with different targets and chemical structures - multidrug resistance - has been a major goal of cancer biologists during the past 35 years. Here, we review the most common of these mechanisms, one that relies on drug efflux from cancer cells mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We describe various approaches to combating multidrug-resistant cancer, including the development of drugs that engage, evade or exploit efflux by ABC transporters.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cancer
                Nat Rev Cancer
                Springer Nature
                1474-175X
                1474-1768
                April 11 2018
                Article
                10.1038/s41568-018-0005-8
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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