Silicone oil has been introduced in a dentifrice for smokers because of its effect as a polishing agent. Silicone oils are hydrophobic in character and have low surface tensions and good wetting properties. Due to the low surface tension, silicone oils may spread readily on solid surfaces and cover them with a thin, water-repellent film. Introduced via dentifrices silicone oil may thus well be able to adsorb to enamel surfaces and to interfere with surface characteristics such as protein adsorption. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of silicone oil on protein adsorption to hydroxyapatite (HA) in vitro and on pellicle formation in vivo. The effect on protein adsorption to HA in vitro was studied by adsorption of albumin to either untreated or silicone oil treated HA powders. Ion exchange chromatography was also used with either untreated or silicone oil treated HA as bed materials. The effect on pellicle formation in vivo was studied using enamel fragments carried in the mouth to acquire pellicle material. The chemical composition of the acquired pellicle was studied by collection and chemical analysis of pellicle material formed on enamel surfaces in vivo. The study showed that silicone oil treated HA took up less protein and that the adsorbed protein was bound to hydroxyapatite by a different mechanism as compared to untreated controls. The results indicated that hydrophobic interactions could be involved in binding of proteins to silicone oil treated hydroxyapatite. Silicone oil treated enamel fragments carried in the mouth showed a slower rate of pellicle formation as compared to untreated fragments. The amino acid composition of the acquired pellicle collected in vivo from silicone oil treated enamel surfaces was also different from pellicle material collected from untreated enamel.