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## The Impact of a Suicide Prevention Strategy on Reducing the Economic Cost of Suicide in the New South Wales Construction Industry

Crisis

Hogrefe Publishing

4901996

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### Abstract

Abstract. Background: Little research has been conducted into the cost and prevention of self-harm in the workplace. Aims: To quantify the economic cost of self-harm and suicide among New South Wales (NSW) construction industry (CI) workers and to examine the potential economic impact of implementing Mates in Construction (MIC). Method: Direct and indirect costs were estimated. Effectiveness was measured using the relative risk ratio (RRR). In Queensland (QLD), relative suicide risks were estimated for 5-year periods before and after the commencement of MIC. For NSW, the difference between the expected (i.e., using NSW pre-MIC [2008–2012] suicide risk) and counterfactual suicide cases (i.e., applying QLD RRR) provided an estimate of potential suicide cases averted in the post-MIC period (2013–2017). Results were adjusted using the average uptake (i.e., 9.4%) of MIC activities in QLD. Economic savings from averted cases were compared with the cost of implementing MIC. Results: The cost of self-harm and suicide in the NSW CI was AU $527 million in 2010. MIC could potentially avert 0.4 suicides, 1.01 full incapacity cases, and 4.92 short absences, generating annual savings of AU$3.66 million. For every AU $1 invested, the economic return is approximately AU$4.6. Conclusion: MIC represents a positive economic investment in workplace safety.

### Most cited references10

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### Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review.

(2005)
In 2002, an estimated 877,000 lives were lost worldwide through suicide. Some developed nations have implemented national suicide prevention plans. Although these plans generally propose multiple interventions, their effectiveness is rarely evaluated. To examine evidence for the effectiveness of specific suicide-preventive interventions and to make recommendations for future prevention programs and research. Relevant publications were identified via electronic searches of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO databases using multiple search terms related to suicide prevention. Studies, published between 1966 and June 2005, included those that evaluated preventative interventions in major domains; education and awareness for the general public and for professionals; screening tools for at-risk individuals; treatment of psychiatric disorders; restricting access to lethal means; and responsible media reporting of suicide. Data were extracted on primary outcomes of interest: suicidal behavior (completion, attempt, ideation), intermediary or secondary outcomes (treatment seeking, identification of at-risk individuals, antidepressant prescription/use rates, referrals), or both. Experts from 15 countries reviewed all studies. Included articles were those that reported on completed and attempted suicide and suicidal ideation; or, where applicable, intermediate outcomes, including help-seeking behavior, identification of at-risk individuals, entry into treatment, and antidepressant prescription rates. We included 3 major types of studies for which the research question was clearly defined: systematic reviews and meta-analyses (n = 10); quantitative studies, either randomized controlled trials (n = 18) or cohort studies (n = 24); and ecological, or population- based studies (n = 41). Heterogeneity of study populations and methodology did not permit formal meta-analysis; thus, a narrative synthesis is presented. Education of physicians and restricting access to lethal means were found to prevent suicide. Other methods including public education, screening programs, and media education need more testing. Physician education in depression recognition and treatment and restricting access to lethal methods reduce suicide rates. Other interventions need more evidence of efficacy. Ascertaining which components of suicide prevention programs are effective in reducing rates of suicide and suicide attempt is essential in order to optimize use of limited resources.
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### Reducing Suicidal Ideation: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Unguided Web-Based Self-help

(2012)
Background Suicidal ideation is highly prevalent, but often remains untreated. The Internet can be used to provide accessible interventions. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an online, unguided, self-help intervention for reducing suicidal ideation. Methods A total of 236 adults with mild to moderate suicidal thoughts, defined as scores between 1-26 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS), were recruited in the general population and randomized to the intervention (n = 116) or to a waitlist, information-only, control group (n = 120). The intervention aimed to decrease the frequency and intensity of suicidal ideation and consisted of 6 modules based on cognitive behavioral techniques. Participants in both groups had unrestricted access to care as usual. Assessments took place at baseline and 6 weeks later (post-test). All questionnaires were self-report and administered via the Internet. Treatment response was defined as a clinically significant decrease in suicidal ideation on the BSS. Total per-participant costs encompassed costs of health service uptake, participants’ out-of-pocket expenses, costs stemming from production losses, and intervention costs. These were expressed in Euros (€) for the reference year 2009. Results At post-test, treatment response was 35.3% and 20.8% in the experimental and control conditions, respectively. The incremental effectiveness was 0.35 − 0.21 = 0.15 (SE 0.06, P = .01). The annualized incremental costs were −€5039 per participant. Therefore, the mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated to be −€5039/0.15 = −€34,727 after rounding (US −\(41,325) for an additional treatment response, indicating annual cost savings per treatment responder. Conclusions This is the first trial to indicate that online self-help to reduce suicidal ideation is feasible, effective, and cost saving. Limitations included reliance on self-report and a short timeframe (6 weeks). Therefore, replication with a longer follow-up period is recommended.
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### Achieving standardised reporting of suicide in Australia: rationale and program for change.

(2010)
Suicide and intentional self-harm are issues of major importance in public health and public policy, with rates widely used as progress indicators in these areas. Accurate statistics are vital for appropriately targeted prevention strategies and research, costing of suicide and to combat associated stigma. Underreporting of Australian suicide rates probably grew from 2002 to 2006; Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) suicide data were at least 11% or 16% undercounted (depending on case definitions) in 2004. In coronial cases with undetermined intent for 2005 to 2007, intentional self-harm was found in 39%. Systemic reasons for undercounting include: (i) absence of a central authority for producing mortality data; (ii) inconsistent coronial processes for determining intent, as a result of inadequate information inputs, suicide stigma, and high standards of proof; (iii) collection and coding methods that are problematic for data stakeholders; and (iv) lack of systemic resourcing, training and shared expertise. Revision of data after coronial case closure, beginning with ABS deaths registered in 2007, is planned and will reduce undercounting. Other reasons for undercounting, such as missing or ambiguous information (eg, single-vehicle road crashes, drowning), differential ascertainment (eg, between jurisdictions), or lack of recorded information on groups such as Indigenous people and gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people require separate responses. A systemic coordinated program should address current inaccuracies, and social stigma about suicide and self-harm must be tackled if widespread underreporting is to stop.

### Author and article information

###### Affiliations
[1]School of Human, Health and Social Sciences, Central Queensland University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
[2]Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, New Lambton, NSW, Australia
[3]Mates in Construction, Spring Hill, QLD, Australia
[4]Mater Hill Psychology Services, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia
[5]McCaughey VicHealth Centre for Community Wellbeing, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia
###### Author notes
Christopher M. Doran, School of Human, Health and Social Sciences, Central Queensland University, Level 4, 160 Ann Street, Brisbane 4000, Australia, Tel. +61 412 93-5084, E-mail c.doran@123456cqu.edu.au
###### Journal
Crisis
Crisis
cri
Crisis
Hogrefe Publishing
0227-5910
2151-2396
23122015December 23, 2015
2016
: 37
: 2
: 121-129