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      Soluble gp130 is the natural inhibitor of soluble interleukin-6 receptor transsignaling responses : Soluble gp130 inhibits transsignaling responses

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          Gp130 and the interleukin-6 family of cytokines.

          Receptors for most interleukins and cytokines that regulate immune and hematopoietic systems belong to the class I cytokine receptor family. These molecules form multichain receptor complexes in order to exhibit high-affinity binding to, and mediate biological functions of, their respective cytokines. In most cases, these functional receptor complexes share common signal transducing receptor components that are also in the class I cytokine receptor family, i.e. gp130, common beta, and common gamma molecules. Interleukin-6 and related cytokines, interleukin-11, leukemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and cardiotrophin-1 are all pleiotropic and exhibit overlapping biological functions. Functional receptor complexes for this interleukin-6 family of cytokines share gp130 as a component critical for signal transduction. Unlike cytokines sharing common beta and common gamma chains that mainly function in hematopoietic and lymphoid cell systems, the interleukin-6 family of cytokines function extensively outside these systems as well, e.g. from the cardiovascular to the nervous system, owing to ubiquitously expressed gp130. Stimulation of cells with the interleukin-6 family of cytokines triggers homo- or hetero-dimerization of gp130. Although gp130 and its dimer partners possess no intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain, the dimerization of gp130 leads to activation of associated cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases and subsequent modification of transcription factors. This paper reviews recent progress in the study of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines and gp130.
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            Role of IL-6 and its soluble receptor in induction of chemokines and leukocyte recruitment.

            IL-6-/- mice showed impaired leukocyte accumulation in subcutaneous air pouches. Defective leukocyte accumulation was not due to a reduced migratory capacity of IL-6-/- leukocytes and was associated with a reduced in situ production of chemokines. These observations led to a reexamination of the interaction of IL-6 with endothelial cells (EC). EC express only the gp130 signal transducing chain and not the subunit-specific IL-6R and are therefore unresponsive to IL-6. However, EC are responsive to a combination of IL-6 and soluble IL-6R as measured by the activation of STAT3, chemokine expression, and augmentation of ICAM-1. Activation by IL-6-IL-6R complexes was inhibited by an IL-6 receptor antagonist and potentiated by a superagonist. Hence, in vivo and in vitro evidence supports the concept that the IL-6 system plays an unexpected positive role in local inflammatory reactions by amplifying leukocyte recruitment.
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              Interleukin-6 triggers the association of its receptor with a possible signal transducer, gp130.

              Interleukin-6 mediates pleiotropic functions in various types of cells through its specific receptor (IL-6-R), the cDNA of which has already been cloned. We report here that an 80 kd single polypeptide chain (IL-6-R) is involved in IL-6 binding and that IL-6 triggers the association of this receptor with a non-ligand-binding membrane glycoprotein, gp130. The association takes place at 37 degrees C within 5 min and is stable for at least 40 min in the presence of IL-6, but does not occur at 0 degree C. Human IL-6-R can associate with a murine gp130 homolog and is functional in murine cells. Mutant IL-6-R lacking the intracytoplasmic portion is functional, suggesting that the two polypeptide chains interact to involve their extracellular portion. In fact, a soluble IL-6-R lacking the transmembrane and intracytoplasmic domains can associate with gp130 in the presence of IL-6 and mediate its function. These findings indicate that the complex of IL-6 and IL-6-R can interact with a non-ligand-binding membrane glycoprotein, gp130, extracellularly and can provide the IL-6 signal.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Biochemistry
                Wiley-Blackwell
                00142956
                January 2001
                January 2001
                : 268
                : 1
                : 160-167
                Article
                10.1046/j.1432-1327.2001.01867.x
                © 2001

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