Currently, there is considerable interest in developing innovative biodegradable nanoformulations for controlled administration of therapeutic proteins and peptides. Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide of 11 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinins family and it plays an important role in wound healing. However, SP is easily degradable in vivo and has a very short half-life, so the use of chitosan-based nanocarriers could enhance its pharmaceutical properties. In light of the above, the aim of this work was to produce and characterize chitosan-coated liposomes loaded with SP (SP-CH-LP) as novel biomaterials with potential application in mucosal wound healing. The loaded system’s biophysical properties were characterized by dynamic light scattering with non-invasive back scattering (DLS-NIBS), mixed mode measurements and phase analysis light scattering (M3-PALS) and high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible light detection (HPLC-UV/VIS). Then, the efficacy of the obtained nanoformulations was examined via proof-of-principle experiments using in vitro cell assays. These assays showed an increment on cell motility and proliferation after treatment with free and encapsulated neuropeptides. Additionally, the effect of SP on wound healing was enhanced by the entrapment on CH-LP. Overall, the amenability of chitosan-based nanomaterials to encapsulate peptides and proteins constitutes a promising approach towards potential novel therapies to treat difficult wounds.