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      One Health: An Approach to Resolving Antibiotic Resistance

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          Antibiotic resistance-the need for global solutions.

          The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex and include human behaviour at many levels of society; the consequences affect everybody in the world. Similarities with climate change are evident. Many efforts have been made to describe the many different facets of antibiotic resistance and the interventions needed to meet the challenge. However, coordinated action is largely absent, especially at the political level, both nationally and internationally. Antibiotics paved the way for unprecedented medical and societal developments, and are today indispensible in all health systems. Achievements in modern medicine, such as major surgery, organ transplantation, treatment of preterm babies, and cancer chemotherapy, which we today take for granted, would not be possible without access to effective treatment for bacterial infections. Within just a few years, we might be faced with dire setbacks, medically, socially, and economically, unless real and unprecedented global coordinated actions are immediately taken. Here, we describe the global situation of antibiotic resistance, its major causes and consequences, and identify key areas in which action is urgently needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Tackling antibiotic resistance: the environmental framework.

            Antibiotic resistance is a threat to human and animal health worldwide, and key measures are required to reduce the risks posed by antibiotic resistance genes that occur in the environment. These measures include the identification of critical points of control, the development of reliable surveillance and risk assessment procedures, and the implementation of technological solutions that can prevent environmental contamination with antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes. In this Opinion article, we discuss the main knowledge gaps, the future research needs and the policy and management options that should be prioritized to tackle antibiotic resistance in the environment.
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              Microbiological effects of sublethal levels of antibiotics.

              The widespread use of antibiotics results in the generation of antibiotic concentration gradients in humans, livestock and the environment. Thus, bacteria are frequently exposed to non-lethal (that is, subinhibitory) concentrations of drugs, and recent evidence suggests that this is likely to have an important role in the evolution of antibiotic resistance. In this Review, we discuss the ecology of antibiotics and the ability of subinhibitory concentrations to select for bacterial resistance. We also consider the effects of low-level drug exposure on bacterial physiology, including the generation of genetic and phenotypic variability, as well as the ability of antibiotics to function as signalling molecules. Together, these effects accelerate the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among humans and animals.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Infectious Diseases and Translational Medicine
                Infect. Dis. Transl. Med.
                Infect. Dis. Transl. Med.
                International Biological and Medical Journals Publishing House Co., Limited (Room E16, 3/f, Yongda Commercial Building, No.97, Bonham Stand (Sheung Wan), HongKong )
                2411-2917
                20 November 2016
                20 November 2016
                : 2
                : 3
                : 122-124
                Affiliations
                From National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Animal Original Bacteria, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
                From National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Animal Original Bacteria, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
                From National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Animal Original Bacteria, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
                From National Risk Assessment Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance of Animal Original Bacteria, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Youjun Feng, Email: fengyj@ 123456zju.edu.cn ;
                Ya-Hong Liu, Email: lyh@ 123456scau.edu.cn .
                Article
                10.11979/idtm.201603007
                8b1d630b-51b2-46d8-957f-17293cb37773

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, References: 21, Pages: 3
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                Medicine,Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Medicine, Infectious disease & Microbiology

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