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      The rate of force generation by the myocardium is not influenced by afterload

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          Abstract

          The influence of afterload on the rate of force generation by the myocardium was investigated using two types of preparations: the in situ dog heart (dP/dt) and isolated papillary muscle of rats (dT/dt). Thirteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and thoracotomized dogs were submitted to pharmacological autonomic blockade (3.0 mg/kg oxprenolol plus 0.5 mg/kg atropine). A reservoir connected to the left atrium permitted the control of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). A mechanical constriction of the descending thoracic aorta allowed to increase the systolic pressure in two steps of 20 mmHg (conditions H1 and H2) above control values (condition C). After arterial pressure elevations (systolic pressure C: 119 ± 8.1; H1: 142 ± 7.9; H2 166 ± 7.7 mmHg; P<0.01), there were no significant differences in heart rate (C: 125 ± 13.9; H1: 125 ± 13.5; H2: 123 ± 14.1 bpm; P>0.05) or LVEDP (C: 6.2 ± 2.48; H1: 6.3 ± 2.43; H2: 6.1 ± 2.51 mmHg; P>0.05). The values of dP/dt did not change after each elevation of arterial pressure (C: 3,068 ± 1,057; H1: 3,112 ± 996; H2: 3,086 ± 980 mmHg/s; P>0.05). In isolated rat papillary muscle, an afterload corresponding to 50% and 75% of the maximal developed tension did not alter the values of the maximum rate of tension development (100%: 78 ± 13; 75%: 80 ± 13; 50%: 79 ± 11 g mm-2 s-1, P>0.05). The results show that the rise in afterload per se does not cause changes in dP/dt or dT/dt

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          Most cited references 33

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          Multivariate Statistical Methods

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            The left ventricular dP/dtmax-end-diastolic volume relation in closed-chest dogs.

             Erika Little (1985)
            I investigated the relation of the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise to the end-diastolic volume and the comparison of the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise-end-diastolic volume relation to the end-systolic pressure-volume relation, using the time-varying elastance model. These studies were performed in 11 dogs chronically instrumented to measure left ventricular pressure and determine left ventricular volume from three orthogonal dimensions. During vena caval occlusions, the relations between the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise and end-diastolic volume were described by straight lines (r = 0.97 +/- 0.01, mean +/- SD). Dobutamine increased the slope of the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise-end-diastolic volume relation to 358 +/- 94% of control. This increase was greater than the 244 +/- 61% increase in the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (P less than 0.005). The volume intercepts of the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise-end-diastolic volume relation and end-systolic pressure-volume relation were similar and were not significantly altered by dobutamine. The ratio of the slope of the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise-end-diastolic volume relation to the slope of the end-systolic pressure-volume relation divided by the time from end-diastole to end-systole was similar before (2.2 +/- 0.7) and after dobutamine (2.3 +/- 0.7, P = NS). Angiotensin II did not significantly alter the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise-end-diastolic volume relation generated by caval occlusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              End-systolic pressure as a balance between opposing effects of ejection.

               Roger Hunter (1989)
              Ejection has previously been thought to exert only negative effects on end-systolic left ventricular pressure, via mechanisms like shortening deactivation and the force-velocity relation. Whether ejection also exerted a positive influence on pressure generation was tested by comparing two successive beats: 1) the last beat of steady-state ejection versus 2) a totally isovolumic contraction at the end-systolic volume. In 12 isolated, blood-perfused canine hearts loaded with a simulated arterial system, ejecting end-systolic pressure exceeded isovolumic pressure by approximately 10 mm Hg when ejection fraction was 0.3. With both higher and lower ejection fractions, the excess of ejecting end-systolic pressure was smaller; beyond an ejection fraction of roughly 0.5, the trend reversed so that ejecting end-systolic pressure fell below isovolumic pressure. The maximum excess in ejecting end-systolic pressure was quite variable (1-17 mm Hg), but the pattern of its variation with ejection fraction was consistent. A correlate of the positive effect of ejection on ventricular pressure was found in the timing of end systole. For an ejection fraction of 0.4, the systolic duration of ejecting beats was approximately 45% longer than in isovolumic beats (range, 23-67%). Potentially, a positive effect of ejection might be due to a residual influence of the stronger activation of cardiac myofilaments early in ejecting systole during which the sarcomeres were at longer lengths than in the isovolumic beat at end-systolic volume (length-dependent activation). A hypothetical model based on this mechanism reproduced both of the positive effects of ejection that were observed: excess end-systolic pressure and prolonged duration of systole. Thus, the approximate load independence of end-systolic pressure could result from the counter balance between opposing influences of ejection.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bjmbr
                Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
                Braz J Med Biol Res
                Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (Ribeirão Preto )
                1414-431X
                December 1997
                : 30
                : 12
                : 1471-1477
                Affiliations
                [1 ]
                [2 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade Estadual Paulista Brazil
                Article
                S0100-879X1997001200015
                10.1590/S0100-879X1997001200015
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                BIOLOGY
                MEDICINE, RESEARCH & EXPERIMENTAL

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