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      Satisfied-Defect, Unsatisfied-Cooperate: A Novel Evolutionary Dynamics of Cooperation Led by Aspiration

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          Abstract

          The evolutionary game theory has been widely used to study the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas where imitation-led strategy updates are typically assumed. However, results of recent behavioural experiments are not compatible with the predictions based on the imitation dynamics, casting doubts on the assumption of the imitation-led updates and calling for alternative mechanisms of strategy updates. Although an aspiration-led update is often considered as an alternative to the imitation-led one, they are still similar in that both yield cooperation less abundant than defection in Prisoner's Dilemma games. While details of update rules can have significant impacts on the evolutionary outcomes and many variations in imitation-led updates are thus studied, there exist few alternatives in aspiration-led updates. We introduce a novel aspiration-led update mechanism (`Satisfied-Defect, Unsatisfied-Cooperate') that is psychologically intuitive and yields cooperation to be more abundant than defection in Prisoner's Dilemma games. Using analytical and numerical methods, we study and link the stochastic dynamics of it in finite populations and the deterministic dynamics of infinite populations.

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          Most cited references 26

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          A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks.

          A fundamental aspect of all biological systems is cooperation. Cooperative interactions are required for many levels of biological organization ranging from single cells to groups of animals. Human society is based to a large extent on mechanisms that promote cooperation. It is well known that in unstructured populations, natural selection favours defectors over cooperators. There is much current interest, however, in studying evolutionary games in structured populations and on graphs. These efforts recognize the fact that who-meets-whom is not random, but determined by spatial relationships or social networks. Here we describe a surprisingly simple rule that is a good approximation for all graphs that we have analysed, including cycles, spatial lattices, random regular graphs, random graphs and scale-free networks: natural selection favours cooperation, if the benefit of the altruistic act, b, divided by the cost, c, exceeds the average number of neighbours, k, which means b/c > k. In this case, cooperation can evolve as a consequence of 'social viscosity' even in the absence of reputation effects or strategic complexity.
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            Scale-Free Networks Provide a Unifying Framework for the Emergence of Cooperation

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              Optimizing the use of information: strategic control of activation of responses.

              Recent studies indicate that subjects may respond to visual information during either an early parallel phase or a later focused phase and that the selection of the relevant phase is data driven. Using the noise-compatibility paradigm, we tested the hypothesis that this selection may also be strategic and context driven. At least part of the interference effect observed in this paradigm is due to response activation during the parallel-processing phase. We manipulated subjects' expectancies for compatible and incompatible noise in 4 experiments and effectively modulated the interference effect. The results suggest that expectancies about the relative utility of the information extracted during the parallel and focused phases determine which phase is used to activate responses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                29 August 2018
                Article
                1808.09957

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                28 pages and 10 figures
                physics.soc-ph cond-mat.stat-mech q-bio.PE

                Evolutionary Biology, Condensed matter, General physics

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