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      Urinary Proteome of Steroid-Sensitive and Steroid-Resistant Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome of Childhood

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          The response to steroid therapy is used to characterize the idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) of childhood as either steroid-sensitive (SSNS) or steroid-resistant (SRNS), a classification with a better prognostic capability than renal biopsy. The majority (∼80%) of INS is due to minimal change disease but the percentage of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis is increasing. We applied a new technological platform to examine the urine proteome to determine if different urinary protein excretion profiles could differentiate patients with SSNS from those with SRNS. Twenty-five patients with INS and 17 control patients were studied. Mid-stream urines were analyzed using surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization mass spectrometry(SELDI-MS). Data were analyzed using multiple bioinformatic techniques. Patient classification was performed using Biomarker Pattern Software<sup>TM</sup> and a generalized form of Adaboost and predictive models were generated using a supervised algorithm with cross-validation. Urinary proteomic data distinguished INS patients from control patients, irrespective of steroid response, with a sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 93.7%, positive predictive value of 96% and a negative predictive value of 88.2%. Classification of patients as SSNS or SRNS was 100%. A protein of mass 4,144 daltons was identified as the single most important classifier in distinguishing SSNS from SRNS. SELDI-MS combined with bioinformatics can identify different proteomic patterns in INS. Characterization of the proteins of interest identified by this proteomic approach with prospective clinical validation may yield a valuable clinical tool for the non-invasive prediction of treatment response and prognosis.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Evaluation and management of proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome in children: recommendations from a pediatric nephrology panel established at the National Kidney Foundation conference on proteinuria, albuminuria, risk, assessment, detection, and elimination (PARADE).

          The development of this review article evolved from a National Kidney Foundation consensus conference on recent advances in the importance of evaluating and treating proteinuria. From this conference, a series of recommendations for the evaluation of adults with proteinuria was published. Because specific pediatric aspects of the problem were outside the scope of the original National Kidney Foundation publication, an ad hoc committee of 6 pediatric nephrologists who were active participants in the National Kidney Foundation conference was established to provide primary care physicians with a concise, up-to-date reference on this subject. The recommendations that are given represent the consensus opinions of the authors. These are based on data from controlled studies in children when available, but many of the opinions are, by necessity, based on uncontrolled series in children or controlled trials performed in adults, because controlled trials in children have not been performed to evaluate many of the treatments described. These recommendations are intended to provide primary care physicians with a useful reference when they are faced with a young child or teenager who presents with proteinuria, whether this is mild and asymptomatic or more severe, leading to nephrotic syndrome.
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            Nephrotic syndrome in children: Prediction of histopathology from clinical and laboratory characteristics at time of diagnosis

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              Urine protein profiling with surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

              In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in exploring the human proteome. In particular, efforts have focused on developing strategies to generate reproducible protein maps of normal cells, tissues, and biologic fluids, from which studies can then compare protein expression between different groups (e.g., healthy individuals vs. those with a specific pathologic state). Various extrinsic factors (instrument settings, matrix composition, urine storage post void, freeze-thaw cycles) and intrinsic factors (blood in urine, urine dilution, first-void vs. midstream urine) were analyzed with respect to their impact on urine protein profiling using surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Extrinsic factors that critically influenced reproducibility and peak detection of urine protein profiling were matrix composition and instrument settings, while freeze-thaw cycles had minimal impact. Midstream urines samples did not undergo changes in their protein profile when stored for three days at 4 degrees C. Intrinsic factors that influenced normal urine protein profiling were blood in the urine and urine dilution. Female first-void urine had a significantly different ratio of proteins present compared to a midstream urine sample. Limitations of the SELDI-TOF-MS technique included ion suppression and quantification of individual proteins when protein composition was complex. SELDI-TOF-MS offers a unique platform for high throughput urine protein profiling; however, standardization of analysis conditions is critical, and both extrinsic and intrinsic factors must be taken into account for accurate data interpretation.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                July 2006
                19 July 2006
                : 26
                : 3
                : 258-267
                aSection of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, and bDepartment of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y.; cRenal Institute, New York Medical College, Valhalla, N.Y., USA
                93814 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:258–267
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 21, Pages: 10
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                Original Report: Patient-Oriented Translational Research


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